Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)The Mishnah lists Peigam (red-cabbage), wild Yarbuzin (asparagus [or 'Yarbutzin and wild Yarbutzin', see Tos. Yom-Tov]) and Chalaglugos (purslane) among the vegetables that are Patur from Ma'asros. Why are they Patur?

(b)How do we learn this from the Pasuk in Re'ei "u'Ba ha'Levi ki Ein lo Cheilek ve'Nachalah Imach"?

(c)Why does the Tana therefore go on to say that one is permitted to purchase them from anybody in the Sh'mitah?

(d)Why may one not purchase more than what one requires for three meals of what has not been guarded?

(e)What is the minimum Shi'ur that one is forbidden to purchase from what has been guarded?

1)

(a)The Mishnah lists Peigam (red-cabbage), wild Yarbuzin (asparagus [or 'Yarbutzin and wild Yarbutzin', see Tos. Yom-Tov]) and Chalaglugos (purslane) among the vegetables that are Patur from Ma'asros - because one does not tend to guard them, and whatever is not guarded is Patur from Ma'aser.

(b)We learn this from the Pasuk in Re'ei "u'Ba ha'Levi ki Ein lo Cheilek ve'Nachalah Imach" - which implies that a Levi may only claim Ma'aser from produce in which he has no portion (to preclude Hefker, which he has as much right to take as a Yisrael).

(c)The Tana therefore goes on to say that is permitted to purchase them from anybody in the Sh'mitah - because whatever is not guarded, there is no reason to suspect an Am-ha'Aretz of having transgressed (see Tos. Yom-Tov [DH 've'Nilkachin']).

(d)One may not purchase more than what one requires for three meals of what has not been guarded (see Tos Yom-Tov [Ibid]) - because beyond that, we are concerned that the seller will hoard money which has Kedushas Shevi'is and abuse it.

(e)From what has been guarded however, one is forbidden to purchase - even as little as half an Isur (four P'rutos [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

2)

(a)If the Tana Kama includes in the above list coriander that grows in the mountains, what does he say about ...

1. ... parsley?

2. ... the rocket-plant (ha'Gargar ... )?

(b)On what grounds does R. Yehudah add wild mustard-seeds to the list?

2)

(a)The Tana Kama includes in the list coriander that grows in the mountains ...

1. ... parsley - that grows by the river, and ...

2. ... the rocket-plant (ha'Gargar ... ) - that grows in marshland.

(b)R. Yehudah adds wild mustard-seeds to the list - because, he maintains, the Amei-ha'Aretz are not suspected of bringing them in from guarded places either.

3)

(a)R. Shimon permits all wild seeds with one exception. What is that?

(b)What makes cabbage different in this regard?

(c)What do the Chachamim say?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

3)

(a)R. Shimon permits all wild seeds with one exception - namely, those of a cabbage ...

(b)... since there is no vegetable that grows as successfully as *it* does, even in the desert (see Tos. Yom-Tov), in which case we suspect that it was indeed guarded.

Mishnah 2
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4)

(a)What are the three major areas listed by the Mishnah regarding Biy'ur?

(b)What are the ramifications of this statement?

(c)How do we learn this from the Pasuk "ve'li'Vehemt'cha ve'la'Chayah Tih'yeh Chol Tevu'asah Le'echol"?

(d)Into how many sub-divisions is each of these three areas divided?

4)

(a)The three major areas listed by the Mishnah regarding Biy'ur are - Yehudah, Eiver ha'Yarden and the Galil.

(b)The ramifications of this statement are that - as soon as there no fruit remains on the trees (see Tos. Yom-Tov) with regard to any specific species in that area, one is obligated to clear out whatever of that species still remains in the house and declare it Hefker (Biy'ur [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(c)And we learn this from the Pasuk "ve'li'Vehemt'cha ve'la'Chayah Tih'yeh Chol Tevu'asah Le'echol" - from the fact that the word "ve'li'Vehemt'cha" is otherwise superfluous), that one may only continue feeding one's animals without declaring it Hefker, as long as the wild animals still have what to eat in the field

(d)Each of these three areas is divided - into three sub-divisions (as we shall now see).

5)

(a)The first two sub-divisions of the Galil are the upper Galili and the lower Galili. What distinguishes the two?

(b)What has 'K'far Chananyah got to do with this?

(c)What is the third sub-division?

(d)Which is the border-town that marks it?

5)

(a)The first two sub-divisions of the Galil are the upper Galili - (where no Shikmin [wild-fig-trees [grow]) and the lower Galili - (where they do).

(b)K'far Chananyah - is the border town that divides them.

(c)The third sub-division is - the valley ...

(d)... whose border-town is - Teveryah.

6)

(a)If the first two sub-divisions of Yehudah are the mountains and the lowlands, what is the third?

(b)What does the Tana say about ...

1. ... the lowlands of Lud?

2. ... the mountains of Lud?

3. ... the area from Beis-Choron until the sea?

(c)What is the significance of these three areas?

6)

(a)The first two sub-divisions of Yehudah are the mountains and the lowlands, the third is - the valley.

(b)The Tana equates ...

1. ... the lowlands of Lud - with those of the south ...

2. ... the mountains of Lud - with those of Har ha'Melech.

3. ... the area from Beis-Choron until the sea (as if it was all one and the same area.

(c)These three areas constitute - the three sub-divisions of Eiver ha'Yarden (see Tiferes Yisrael, note 15).

Mishnah 3
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7)

(a)What does the Tana mean when he asks 'Lamah Amru Shalosh Aratzos'?

(b)What is the answer?

(c)What is the reason for this division?

7)

(a)When the Tana asks 'Lamah Amru Shalosh Aratzos', he means to ask that - seeing as each of the three areas is sub-divided into three, what is then the significance of the initial division?

(b)The answer is that - it is the three main areas that determine the Chiyuv Biy'ur, and not the three sub-divisions (see Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael above, note 16).

(c)The reason for this division is - because the wild animals tended not to roam in the other two areas (e.g. the wild animals of Yehudah would not venture into the Galil, and would therefore not eat the fruit there).

8)

(a)R. Shimon disagrees with the Tana Kama. What criterion does he present regarding Biy'ur for ...

1. ... Eretz Yehudah?

2. ... the rest of Eretz Yisrael?

(b)What does he say with regard to dates and olives?

(c)What does he say about Eretz Yehudah?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

8)

(a)R. Shimon disagrees with the Tana Kama. The criterion he presents regarding Biy'ur for ...

1. ... Eretz Yehudah is - the valleys of Yehudah (the third of the sub-divisions of Yehudah mentioned in the previous Mishnah).

2. ... the rest of Eretz Yisrael is - whenever there is no more fruit available for the wild animals in the area called Har-ha-Melech (also mentioned there).

(b)The date of dates and olives, he maintains is - standard throughout Eretz Yisrael (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)In his opinion - Eretz Yehudah is the only area that is sub-divided into three (See Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(d)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 4
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9)

(a)On what condition does the Tana Kama prohibit eating of any particular species even though some of that species still remains in the determining area?

(b)What is the source for that?

(c)What does R. Yossi say?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

9)

(a)The Tana Kama prohibits eating of any particular species even though some of that species still remains in the determining area - if it is guarded (i.e. not Hedfker, such as in the house or in an enclosed garden) ...

(b)... seeing as the wild animals do not have access to it.

(c)R. Yossi - permits it either way (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

10)

(a)What does the Mishnah mean when it permits eating ...

1. ... 'al ha'Tefichin'?

2. ... 'al ha'Dufra'?

(b)What does the Tana Kama say about eating 'al ha'Sitvanis' (grapes that grow in the winter)?

(c)What does R. Yehudah say about that (see Tiferes Yisrael)?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

10)

(a)When the Mishnah permits eating ...

1. ... 'al ha'Tefichin', it means - that one may eat from a specific species relying on whatever the birds have stored in earthenware pots that are built into the wall.

2. ... 'al ha'Dufra', it means - that one is permitted to eat from that species even if the fruit still on the trees belong to the second harvest.

(b)The Tana Kama - forbids however, eating grapes relying on 'Sitvanis'(grapes that grow in the winter).

(c)R. Yehudah - permits it as long as they began to ripen before the summer harvest has terminated (Tiferes Yisrael).

(d)Here too, the Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 5
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11)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who pickles three different species in one jar, each of which has a different time for Biy'ur. R. Eliezer goes after the first one to finish in the field. What is his reason?

(b)What does R. Yehoshua say, based on the Pasuk "min ha'Sadeh Tochlu es Tevu'asah"?

(c)And what does Raban Gamliel say?

11)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who pickles three different species in one jar, each of which has a different time for Biy'ur. R. Eliezer goes after the first one to finish in the field - because Sh'mitah produce forbids other species be'Nosen Ta'am.

(b)Based on the Pasuk "min ha'Sadeh Tochlu es Tevu'asah" (which is otherwise superfluous) R. Yehoshua - permits the other two species on the basis of the one that is still to be found in the field (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)Raban Gamliel - permits whichever species is still available in the field (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

12)

(a)Like which of the three opinions does the Mishnah itself rule?

(b)R. Shimon is the most lenient of all. What does he say?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

12)

(a)The Mishnah itself rules - like Raban Gamliel.

(b)R. Shimon is the most lenient of all - permitting all the species on the basis of any vegetables that are still to be found in the field.

(c)The Halachah like - is Raban Gamliel (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

13)

(a)One may retain Regilah without Biy'ur until the Sigariyos are finished from the valley of Beis Netofah (See Tos. Yom-Tov). What is another name for Regilah?

(b)What is unusual about Regilah, that causes them to be permitted for so long?

(c)What are 'Sigari'os'?

13)

(a)One may retain Regilah - (the herb of purslane [Chalaglugos]) without Biy'ur until the Sigariyos are finished from the valley of Beis Netofah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(b)... which are permitted for so long - because, due to an abundance of moist (see also Tiferes Yisrael), batches of it remain in many places, even though it is not always visible, since much of it grows underground.

(c)'Sigari'os' are - those (Regilos) that have already been picked and are lying in the valley of Beis Netofah ...

Mishnah 6
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14)

(a)Until when does the Mishnah permit one to eat herbs that one gathers when they are ...

1. ... moist?

2. ... dry?

(b)What date is that in a regular year?

(c)The rain may be referred to as 'Revi'ah' because it impregnates the earth, causing it to give birth (like a man does to a woman). Why else might it be called by that name?

14)

(a)The Mishnah permits one to eat herbs that one gathers when they are ...

1. ... moist - until the earth (which sweetens the fruit) dries up.

2. ... dry - until the second rainfall ...

(b)... which normally occurs on the twenty-third of Mar-Cheshvan.

(c)The rain is referred to as 'Revi'ah', either because it impregnates the earth, causing it to give birth (like a man does to a woman) or - because it causes the dust to settle (another connotation of 'Revi'ah').

15)

(a)Until when does the Tana permit eating vine-leaves and the leaves of canes following the Sh'mitah?

(b)What standard date does R. Akiva give for Biy'ur regarding all the cases in this Mishnah?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

15)

(a)The Tana permits eating vine-leaves and the leaves of canes following the Sh'mitah - until they fall off.

(b)R. Akiva gives the standard date of Biy'ur for all the cases in this Mishnah as - the second rainfall.

(c)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 7
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16)

(a)What does the Tana say about someone who rents out his house or someone who is Mudar Hana'ah me'Chavero (forbidden to benefit from his friend) 'until the rains'?

(b)He now draws a distinction between the final time the poor may enter the orchards (to eat the fruit that grows there) and permission to benefit from straw and stubble or to burn it (without Biy'ur). On what basis are straw and stubble subject to Kedushas Shevi'is?

(c)What final date does he now give for ...

1. ... the poor to enter the orchards (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

2. ... benefiting from straw and stubble or burning it without Biy'ur?

(d)What is the reason for the latter ruling?

16)

(a)Based on the previous Mishnah, the Tana rules that when someone rents out his house or someone who is Mudar Hana'ah me'Chavero (forbidden to benefit from his friend)'until the rains' - he means until the second rainfall.

(b)He now draws a distinction between the final time the poor may enter the orchards (to eat the fruit that grows there) and permission to benefit from straw and stubble or to burn it (without Biy'ur). Straw and stubble are subject to Kedushas Shevi'is - because they are animal fodder.

(c)The final date he now gives for ...

1. ... the poor to enter the orchards (see Tos. Yom-Tov) is - until the second rainfall.

2. ... permission to benefit from straw and stubble or to burn it is - until after the second rainfall ...

(d)... because at that stage whatever remains in the field is no longer fit for the wild animals to eat (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 8
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17)

(a)If one does not know whether any grapes, olives, dates or figs remain in the field for the wild animals, until when does the Beraisa permit eating (without Biy'ur) ...

1. ... grapes?

2. ... olives?

3. ... dried figs?

4. ... dates?

(b)What does the Mishnah require a person who has Sh'mitah-fruit in the house to do, when the time of Biy'ur arrives? How does he distribute it?

(c)What does he do next (See Tiferes Yisrael)?

(d)According to R. Yehudah, the poor are permitted to continue eating after one has performed Biy'ur. What does R. Yossi say (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

17)

(a)If one does not know whether any grapes, olives, dates or figs remain in the field for the wild animals, the date the Beraisa permits eating (without Biy'ur) ...

1. ... grapes is - until Pesach ...

2. ... olives - until Shavu'os ...

3. ... dried figs - until Chanukah, and ...

4. ... dates - until Purim.

(b)When the time of Biy'ur arrives, the Mishnah requires a person who has Sh'mitah-fruit in the house - to distribute three meals to each member of his household and to all his neighbors, relatives and friends ...

(c)... before placing the remainder at the entrance of his house and inviting whoever wishes to come and help himself (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(d)According to R. Yehudah, only the poor are permitted to continue eating after one has performed Biy'ur. R. Yossi - permits even the rich to do so (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 9
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18)

(a)The Mishnah discusses the fruit of Sh'mitah that a person receives as an inheritance or as a gift. What does R. Eliezer mean when he says 'Yinasnu le'Ochleihen'?

(b)Why is that?

18)

(a)The Mishnah discusses the fruit of Sh'mitah that a person receives as an inheritance or as a gift. When R. Eliezer says 'Yinasnu le'Ochleihen', he means - that he is only permitted to eat it together with others, but not on his own ...

(b)... so that he should not come to sin by thanking the person from whom he received it (like Beis Shamai in the fourth Perek).

19)

(a)What do the Chachamim comment on R. Eliezer's ruling?

(b)According to R. Eliezer'a reasning, what ought he then to do?

(c)What do they say the owner should do?

(d)On what grounds do the Chachamim disagree with R. Eliezer?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

19)

(a)The Chachamim comment that - according to R. Eliezer, he ought not to be permitted to eat at all, even together with others.

(b)According to R. Eliezer's reasoning - he ought to sell it to others, and distribute the proceeds to anybody he wants.

(c)They say that - the owner is even permitted to eat what he inherits or receives as a gift on his own.

(d)The Chachamim disagree with R. Eliezer in that - they permit a person to thank the person from whom he received the Sh'mitah produce (like Beis Hillel in the fourth Perek).

(e)The Halachah is - like the Chachamim,

20)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about someone who eats a dough made from Sh'mitah produce before Chalah has been taken?

(b)What is the significance of the Pasuk "Reishis Arisoseichem" in this regard?

(c)What would we otherwise have learned from the Pasuk "le'Ochlah"?

(d)Why is that?

20)

(a)The Mishnah rules that someone who eats a dough made from Sh'mitah produce before Chalah has been taken - is Chayav Mi'sah ...

(b)... because the Pasuk writes "Reishis Arisoseichem", implying that all one's doughs are subject to Chalah, even those that comprise Sh'mitah produce (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)We would otherwise have learned from the Pasuk "le'Ochlah" (forbidding the burning of Sh'mitah-produce) - that it is Patur from Chalah ...

(d)... in case it becomes Tamei and needs to be burned.

Hadran alach 'ha'Pigam'