Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)The Tana's great K'lal (see Tos. Yom-Tov) with regard to Sh'mitah incorporates three items, two of them human food and animal food. What is the third?

(b)What does he mean when he says 'u'le'Damav Shevi'is'?

1)

(a)The Tana's great K'lal (see Tos. Yom-Tov) with regard to Sh'mitah incorporates three items; human food, animal food - and dyes (see Tiferes Yisrael & Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'u'mi'Miyn ha'Tzov'im').

(b)When he says 'u'le'Damav Shevi'is', he means - that if one redeems the Sh'mitah produce with money or other food, the latter adopts Kedushas Shevi'is, too.

2)

(a)The Mishnah concludes the K'lal with'Yesh lo Biy'ur u'le'Damav Biy'ur'. What does 'Biy'ur' mean?

(b)When is the time of Biy'ur with regard to each species?

(c)To which kind of crops does Biy'ur apply?

2)

(a)The Mishnah concludes the K'lal with 'Yesh Lo Biy'ur u'le'Damav Biy'ur'. 'Biy'ur' is - obligation to clear out whatever is left in the house (of each individual species) ...

(b)... when there is nothing left (of that particular species) in the field for the wild animals.

(c)Biy'ur only applies - to seasonal crops.

3)

(a)What is the significance of the list that begins with 'the leaves of a Luf ha'Shoteh (a species of onion [see Tiferes Yisrael]) and the leaves of mint'?

(b)Why might we have thought that the former is not subject to Shevi'is?

(c)The list continues with 'Ulshin' (endives) and 'K'risin' (leek). What do they both have in common?

(d)Why might we therefore have thought that they are not subject to Shevi'is?

3)

(a)The list that begins with 'the leaves of a Luf ha'Shoteh (a species of onion) and the leaves of mint' - is that of human food.

(b)We might have thought that the former is not subject to Shevi'is - because, seeing as it is not subject to Tum'as Ochlin, it is not considered a food with regard to Kedushas Shevi'is either.

(c)The list continues with 'Ulshin' (endives) and 'K'risin' (leek) - both of which consist of two species, a garden one, which are Chashuv and subject to Tum'as Ochlin and a field one ...

(d)... which are not - and which we might therefore have thought are not subject to Shevi'is, either.

4)

(a)The last two items in this list are 'ha'Regilah (also known as 'Chalaglugos - purselane) and 'Neitz Chalav', which may be called by that name because it resembles a white flower. What other reason might there be for that name?

(b)The Tana concludes with two kinds of animal food and two kinds of dyes. Which two kinds does he include in his list of animal foods?

(c)And his list of dyes incorporates S'fichei Istis (a plant that produces a dark-blue dye) and Kotzah (a red dye). Why does he refer to the former as *'S'fichei* Istis'?

(d)The Tana concludes with a repetition of the Dinim with which he began. What are the two ramifications of the ruling that Shevi'is pertains both to them and to the money with which one 'redeems' them?

4)

(a)The last two items in this list are 'ha'Regilah (also known as 'Chalaglugos [purselane]) and 'Neitz Chalav', which is called by that name either because it resembles a white flower or - because it is a herb, that, when cut in two, produces a milky substance.

(b)The Tana concludes with two kinds of animal food - thorns and thistles (see Tos. Yom-Tov), and two kinds of dyes.

(c)And his list of dyes incorporates S'fichei Istis (a plant that produces a dark-blue dye) and Kotzah (a red dye). He refers to the former as *'S'fichei* Istis' - because it grows automatically after being harvested the first time (see also Tiferes Yisrael).

(d)The Tana concludes with a repetition of the Dinim with which he began. The ramifications of the ruling that Shevi'is pertains both to them and to the money with which one 'redeems' them are - a. That one is not permitted to destroy or spoil them, and b. that one may not do business with them.

Mishnah 2
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5)

(a)The Mishnah now lists another K'lal, which resembles the first one (according to the second text cited by the Tos. Yom-Tov [see also Tiferes Yisrael]), except that it remains in the ground all year round. In what regard does the Halachah differ here from the first K'lal?

(b)In what connection does the Tana list 'the main part of a Luf ha'Shoteh (another species of onion) and of mint'?

(c)He also includes in his list ha'Arkevanin, ha'Chalbitzin and ha'Buchriyah (a kind of wild melon). 'Arkevanin' may be a herb that grows next to a palm-tree. What else might it mean?

(d)Of which plant listed in the previous Mishnah is 'Chalbitzin' the root?

5)

(a)The Mishnah now lists another K'lal, which resembles the first one (according to the second text cited by the Tos. Yom-Tov [see also Tiferes Yisrael]), except that it remains in the ground all year round, in which case - - it is not subject to Biy'ur.

(b)The Tana list 'the main part of a Luf ha'Shoteh (another species of onion) and of mint'- as an example of human food that belongs to the second list.

(c)He also includes in his list ha'Arkevanin, ha'Chalbitzin and ha'Buchriyah (a kind of wild melon). 'Arkevanin' is either a herb that grows next to a palm-tree or - one whose leaves resemble scorpions.

(d)'Chalbitzin' is the root of - Neitz Chalav (listed in the previous Mishnah).

6)

(a)In what connection does the Tana list 'Pu'ah & Rachpa'?

(b)What does R. Meir say about the money or food with which one redeems any of the above?

(c)What else might he have said instead of 'until Rosh Hashanah'?

(d)What did the Chachamim comment to R. Meir?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

6)

(a)The Tana lists 'Pu'ah & Rachpa' - as examples of dyes that are non-seasonal.

(b)R. Meir rules the money or food with which one redeems any of the above - is subject to Biy'ur until Rosh Hashanah (of the eighth year [see Tiferes Yisrael]).

(c)Instead of 'until Rosh Hashanah', he might have said - 'after Rosh Hashanah' (seeing as the obligation to perform Biy'ur remains [see Mishnah Rishonah]).

(d)The Chachamim asked R. Meir - how the Damim can be subject to Biy'ur, if the produce itself is not?

(e)The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.

Mishnah 3
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7)

(a)The Mishnah includes pomegranates, as well as its Netz, and nuts in the Dinim of Sh'mitah. What is 'Netz'?

(b)What does the Tana say about ...

1. ... the peels of pomegranates?

2. ... nut-shells?

(c)Seeing as neither of these are edible, why do they have Kedushas Shevi'is?

(d)And why does he also include ...

1. ... olive-pits?

2. ... date-pits?

7)

(a)The Mishnah includes pomegranates, as well as its Netz - (the flowery substance that grows on the snout-end of the fruit), and nuts, in the Dinim of Sh'mitah.

(b)The Tana includes ...

1. ... the peels of pomegranates and ...

2. ... nut-shells in the Din of Sh'mitah.

(c)Despite the fact that neither of these are edible, they have Kedushas Shevi'is - because they can be used as dyes (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)And he also include ...

1. ... olive-pits - because it is possible to produce oil from them (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... date-pits - because they are fit for use as animal fodder.

8)

(a)We have already learned that dyes too, have Kedushas Shevi'is. Seeing as the Torah writes 've'Haysah Shabbas ha'Aretz lachem *le'Ochlah*', on what grounds is a dyer permitted to dye with them?

(b)Why does the Tana then forbid him receive remuneration for his work?

8)

(a)We have already learned that dyes too, have Kedushas Shevi'is. Even though the Torah writes 've'Haysah Shabbas ha'Aretz lachem *le'Ochlah*' a dyer permitted to dye with them - because "lachem" implies 'le'Chol Tzorcheichem' (for all your needs).

(b)The Tana nevertheless forbids him to receive remuneration for his work - because one is forbidden to do business with Sh'mitah produce (and being paid for one's work falls under the category of business).

9)

(a)What does the Mishnah now say about Bechoros and T'rumos?

(b)What is the reason for this prohibition?

(c)Under what circumstances did the Chachamim permit the sale of a Bechoros ...

(d)... and on what condition?

9)

(a)The Mishnah now includes Bechoros and T'rumos - in the previous Isur (of doing business).

(b)The reason for this prohibition is - because one might come to hold on to them, and forget what they are and treat them as ordinary Chulin.

(c)The Chachamim permitted the sale of Bechoros however - provided they have been Shechted ...

(d)... and on condition that - one does not sell them in the regular manner, in a store.

10)

(a)The Tana also forbids the sale of Neveilos, T'reifos, Shekatzim and Remasim. How does he learn that from the Pasuk (in Shemini) "u'Teme'im Yih'yu lachem"?

(b)Then why is one permitted to do business with donkeys, camels, horses and mules?

(c)With which category of Asur food is one permitted to do business?

(d)What is the sole exception?

10)

(a)The Tana also forbids the sale of Neveilos, T'reifos, Shekatzim and Remasim, which he learns from the Pasuk (in Shemini) "u'Teme'im Yih'yu lachem" - which (seeing as the Torah has just written "Teme'im heim) is otherwise superfluous (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)One is permitted to do business with donkeys, camels, horses and mules - because they are not edible.

(c)One is permitted to do business, even with forbidden food that is Asur - if the Isur is only mi'de'Rabbanan ...

(d)... with the sole exception of - Yayin Nesech (i.e. S'tam Yeinam).

11)

(a)Going back to Sh'mitah, why does the Tana forbid picking field vegetables (see Tos. Yom-Tov) and then selling them in the market?

(b)In what way does he permit picking and selling them?

(c)On what condition does he even permit selling them in the market?

11)

(a)Going back to Sh'mitah, the Mishnah forbids picking field vegetables (see Tos. Yom-Tov) and then selling them in the market - because it looks as if one has the intention of doing business with Sh'mitah produce.

(b)The Tana permits picking and selling them - there where he picks them whilst his son sells them there in the field.

(c)He even permits selling in the market - those that are left over, assuming he initially picked them with the intention of eating them.

Mishnah 4
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12)

(a)The Mishnah discusses someone who purchases a B'chor for his son's wedding-feast or for Yom-Tov, and then discovers that he does not need it. On what condition are Zarim permitted to eat a B'chor?

(b)What does the Tana say about it?

(c)What does the Tana Kama say about hunters and trappers of wild animals, birds and fish, who catch non-Kasher species in their nets?

(d)From which Pasuk in Re'ei does he learn it?

12)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who purchases a B'chor for his son's wedding-feast or for Yom-Tov, and then discovers that he does not need it. Zarim are permitted to eat a B'chor - if it obtained a blemish.

(b)The Tana - permits him to sell it (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(c)The Tana Kama - likewise permits hunters and trappers of wild animals, birds and fish, who catch non-Kasher species in their nets to sell them ...

(d)... because the Torah writes in Re'ei (in connection with Neveilah) "O Machor le'Nochri" (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

13)

(a)R. Yehudah is more lenient than the Tana Kama in the above ruling. What does he say?

(b)On what basis do the Chachamim restrict their ruling to professional hunters?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

13)

(a)R. Yehudah - permits even someone who simply come across a Tamei bird, to sell it.

(b)The Chachamim disagree with him, restricting the concession to professional hunters - who need the extra revenue to pay for the hunting tax that is imposed on them (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.

Mishnah 5
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14)

(a)All of the items mentioned in this Mishnah are subject to Sh'mitah, and so is their exchange. What does the Tana say in addition about the young shoots (see Tiferes Yisrael) of ...

1. ... Zeradim (a species of tree) and carob-trees?

2. ... the young shoots of an oak tree, a pistachio tree and a box-thorn tree?

(b)What is the basis of this distinction? What makes the former more eligible for Biy'ur than the latter?

(c)And what does the Mishnah say about the leaves of the latter?

14)

(a)All of the items mentioned in this Mishnah are subject to Sh'mitah, and so is their exchange. The Tana rules in addition, that the young shoots (see Tiferes Yisrael) of ...

1. ... Zeradim (a species of tree) and carob-trees - are also subject to Biy'ur.

2. ... the young shoots of an oak tree, a pistachio tree and a box-thorn tree - are subject to Shevi'is, but not to Biy'ur ...

(b)... because, unlike the former, they do not terminate in the winter (they are available for wild animals all year round).

(c)The leaves of the latter however - are subject to Biy'ur, because they tend to fall off.

Mishnah 6
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15)

(a)The Mishnah ascribes Kedushas Shevi'is to roses and their exchange. What does the Tana Kama say about the fruit of a Kofer (which some say, is a cypress-tree), a K'taf (a balsam-tree) and a Lotem?

(b)How about Biy'ur?

15)

(a)The Mishnah ascribes Kedushas Shevi'is to roses and their exchange - and so is the fruit of a Kofer (which some say, is a cypress-tree), a K'taf (a balsam-tree [see also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Mipnei ... ']) and a Lotem, according to the Tana Kama.

(b)And even though the Mishnah does not say so specifically - they are subject to Biy'ur too, (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

16)

(a)What does R. Shimon say about K'taf?

(b)Why is that?

(c)Why is wood not subject to Kedushas Shevi'is?

(d)From which Pasuk does he learn it?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

16)

(a)R. Shimon - precludes K'taf from the list ...

(b)... because he considers the produce of the K'taf (not a fruit [see Tos. Yom-Tov], but) wood ...

(c)... which is not subject to Kedushas Shevi'is - because one only benefits from it after it has been burned.

(d)The source of this ruling is - the word "le'Ochlah" (in B'har), which teaches us that only something from which one benefits as it is being destroyed (as is the case withy eating) falls under the category of Sh'mitah fruit.

(e)The Halachah is - like R. Shimon.

Mishnah 7
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17)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah draw between a Sh'mitah rose that has been 'preserved' in old (non-Sh'mitah) oil, and an old rose that has been 'preserved' in Sh'mitah oil?

(b)On what principle is the latter ruling based?

(c)And what does the Tana say about fresh (Sh'mitah) carobs that have been preserved in old wine?

(d)Why is the ruling more stringent here than in the former case that we just discussed?

(e)What will the Din be if one come to drink the wine before the time of Biy'ur?

17)

(a)The Mishnah rules that if a Sh'mitah rose has been 'preserved' in old (non-Sh'mitah) oil - one simply removes the rose (before the time of Biy'ur), whereas an old (Shmitah) rose that has been 'preserved' in new (eighth-year [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]) oil - is subject to Biy'ur once the time of Biy'ur arrives ...

(b)... based on the principle (cited in the Seifa) that - 'Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno becomes forbidden if the Isur gives taste'.

(c)On the other hand - the Tana declares fresh (Sh'mitah) carobs that have been preserved in old wine subject to Biy'ur ...

(d)... because he is speaking where one comes to drink the entire mixture after the time of Biy'ur.

(e)Should one come to drink the wine before the time of Biy'ur - all he needs to do is to remove the carobs (like in the previous case [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

18)

(a)We just learned that, in the realm of Sh'mitah Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno renders the mixture subject to Biy'ur, provided it gives taste. What does the Tana say in a case of Miyn be'Miyno?

(b)What does 'Zeh ha'Kelal' come to include (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(c)The Tana repeats the K'lal (see Tos. Yom-Tov). On what condition does Shevi'is forbid 'be'Miyno be'Chol she'Hu'?

(d)What will the Din then be before the time of Biy'ur?

18)

(a)We just learned that, in the realm of Sh'mitah whereas Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno renders the mixture subject to Biy'ur, provided it gives taste - 'Miyn be'Miyno - renders Asur even be'Mashehu'.

(b)'Zeh ha'Kelal' - comes to include other Isurim (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Tana repeats the K'lal (see Tos. Yom-Tov). Shevi'is forbids 'be'Miyno be'Chol she'Hu' - only after the time of Biy'ur.

(d)Before Biy'ur - one is permitted to spoil or to do business with a mixture containing a Kol shehu of Sh'mitah produce.

Hadran alach 'K'lal Gadol' (Kama)