YEVAMOS 88 (4 Sivan) - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld in memory of the members of his father's family who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers in the Holocaust, Hashem Yikom Damam: His father's mother (Mirel bas Yakov Mordechai), brothers (Shraga Feivel, Aryeh Leib and Yisachar Dov sons of Mordechai), grandfather (Reb Yakov Mordechai ben Reb David Shpira) and aunt (Charne bas Yakov Mordechai, the wife of Reb Moshe Aryeh Cohen zt'l). Their Yahrzeit is observed on 4 Sivan.



מתני' האשה שהלך בעלה למדינת הים באו ואמרו לה מת בעליך ונישאת ואחר כך בא בעלה


(Mishnah): A woman's husband went overseas; they (really, one witness) told her that he died. If she remarried (Nisu'in) and her husband returned, [the following fines apply]:

תצא מזה ומזה וצריכה גט מזה ומזה אין לה לא כתובה ולא פירות ולא מזונות ולא בלאות על זה ועל זה ואם נטלה מזה ומזה תחזור


She may not remain with either man; she needs a Get from both men; she does not receive from either man a Kesuvah, nor Peiros (of her property), nor food, nor Bala'os (compensation for depreciation, or remnants) of her property. If she took, she must return them;

והוולד ממזר מזה ומזה לא זה וזה מטמאין לה ולא זה וזה זכאים לא במציאתה ולא במעשה ידיה ולא בהפרת נדריה


If she has a child from either man, he is a Mamzer. [If she died], neither husband becomes Tamei for her [through engaging in her burial]. Neither receives her Metzi'os (Hefker objects that she finds) or earnings. Neither may annul her vows;

היתה בת ישראל נפסלה מן הכהונה ובת לוי מן המעשר ובת כהן מן התרומה


If she is a Bas Yisrael, she is disqualified from Kehunah. If she is a Bas Levi, she is disqualified from Ma'aser. If she is a Bas Kohen, she is disqualified from Terumah;

אין יורשיו של זה ולא יורשיו של זה יורשין כתובתה מתו אחיו של זה ואחיו של זה חולצין ולא מייבמין:


The heirs of either husband do not inherit her Kesuvah. If the husbands die, the brothers do Chalitzah but not Yibum.

גמ' כמה דתימר תמן מפרישין אותן שלשה חדשים שמא מעוברות הן ואם היו קטנות ולא היו ראויות לוולד מחזירין אותן מיד. ואמר אף הכא כן.


(Gemara) Question: Just like you say there (above, Mishnah 3:10), we separate them [from their husbands] for three months, lest they are pregnant, and if they were minors, who are not proper to give birth, we return them immediately, also here [we should say so]!

שנייא היא תמן שאחרים הטעו בהן.


Answer: Here is different, for others made them err.

והכא לא אחרים הטעו בה.


Question: Here did others not deceive them?!

[דף נג עמוד ב] קנס קנסו בה שתהא בודקת יפה.


Answer: This is a fine against her, so she will check well [that her husband really died before she remarries.

ויקנסו בה אצל השני ולא יקנסו בה אצל הראשון.


Question: We should fine her (forbid her) to the second [husband], and not to the first (he is blameless)!

אמר רבי יוחנן מריח ערוה נגעו בה.


Answer (R. Yochanan): This is due to the scent of Ervah (she looks like an Eshes Ish who was Mezanah b'Mezid. If she returns to her husband, people will think that Zenus does not forbid to her husband.)

מעתה לא תהא צריכה ממנו גט.


Question: If so, she should not need a Get [from the second]!

שנייא היא שנישאת לו דרך היתר.


Answer #1: This is different [than Zenus], for she married him in [what looked like] a permitted way. (People know that there was testimony that her husband died; they assume that it was true. We do not want them to think that she leaves her second husband without a Get.)

שמואל אמר אומר אני שמא שילח לה גיטה ממדינת הים.


Answer #2 (Shmuel): I (i.e. people who know that her husband is alive and see her remarry) say that perhaps her husband sent to her a Get from overseas.

התיב רבי חגיי קומי רבי זעירא והתנינן אמרו לה מת בעליך ונתקדשה ואח"כ בא בעלה מותרת לחזור לו.


Question (R. Chagai, to R. Ze'ira - Mishnah 3): If witnesses told her that her husband died, and she became Mekudeshes, and later, her husband returned, she may return to him.

אם אומר את שמא שילח לה גיטה ממדינת הים תהא אסורה לחזור לו.


If you will say that perhaps her husband sent to her a Get from overseas, she should be forbidden to return to him!

אלא כרבי יוסי בן כיפר דרבי יוסי בן כיפר אמר מן האירוסין מותרת.


Answer: [The Mishnah] is like R. Yosi ben Kiper, for R. Yosi ben Kiper says that [if a divorcee remarried and was widowed or divorced from the latter husband, if this was] from Eirusin (to the latter), she is permitted [to return to her first husband.

ולא מודי רבי יוסי בן כיפר שאם נתן לה האחרון גט פסלה מן הכהונה. והתנינן אף על פי שנתן לה האחרון גט לא פסלה מן הכהונה.


Question: Does R. Yosi ben Kiper not agree that if the latter gave a Get to her, he disqualified her from Kehunah? That Mishnah teaches that even if the latter gave a Get to her, she is permitted to Kehunah!

רבנין דקיסרין בשם רבי הילא כדי לברר איסורו של ראשון.


Answer #3 (Rabanan of Kisarin citing R. Heila): She needs a Get [from the second] in order to clarify her Isur to the first (it is as if he divorced her, she remarried, and was divorced again; she is forbidden to the first due to Machzir Gerushaso. This is only when she had Nisu'in with the second.)

עד כדון ביודעת שהיא אשת איש. לא היתה יודעת שהיא אשת איש. (נישמעינה מן הדא) [צ"ל והיידא - קרבן העדה] קטנה שהשיאה אביה (נתגרשה) [צ"ל והגדילה - אור שמח הלכות גירושין י:ח] והלכה והשיאה את עצמה


Question: Until now [we discuss] one who knew that she is an Eshes Ish. If she did not know that she is an Eshes Ish - what is the case? It is a minor whose father married her off [and her husband left her] and she matured and married herself off (what is the law? Does she need a Get?)

וא"ר אילא [צ"ל נישמעינה מן הדא - קרבן העדה] תני תמן כל העריות אינן צריכות הימינו גט חוץ מאשת איש בלבד.


Answer (R. Ila): We learn from what was taught there (in Bavel). All Arayos who married do not need a Get, except for Eshes Ish [who remarried according to a ruling of Beis Din];

רבי עקיבה אומר אף אחות אשתו ואשת אחיו.


R. Akiva says, even Achos Ishto and Eshes Achiv

שנייא היא תמן בין שהיא יודעת בין שאינה יודעת והכא לא שנייא בין שהיא יודעת בין שאינה יודעת:


There (Eshes Achiv), is there any difference between a woman who knows and one who does not know?! (Surely they are the same. The Yavam decides whether or not to do Yibum! Also) here (Eshes Ish) there is no difference between a woman who knows and one who does not know. (OHR SOMAYACH, Hilchos Gerushin 10:8)


Note: If a Yevamah does not immerse from Nidah, the Yavam may not do Yibum. However, if Beis Din authorized Yibum, and she refused to immerse, she would get the law of Moredes, and lose her Kesuvah [and get a bad reputation; it would be hard for her to remarry afterwards] and lose the ability to eat Taharos.