[25a - 40 lines; 25b - 52 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 25a [line 10]:
"Makdish Adam Bechor" מקדיש אדם בכור
It appears from Rashi and Rabeinu Gershom that this should be "Makdish Bechor Adam" מקדיש בכור אדם (M. KORNFELD)
 Gemara [line 27]:
"Divrei Mi Shom'in" (twice) דברי מי שומעין
The Girsa of Rashi and Rabeinu Gershom is
"Divrei ha'Rav Kodmin" דברי הרב קודמין
 Gemara [line 39]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #18
 Rashi 25a DH Lehevei Hefker ד"ה להוי הפקר:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #32 and #33
1)[line 7]"בכור לא יקדיש""BECHOR LO YAKDISH"- had the verse said merely, "Bechor Lo Yakdish," without the words, "Ish Oso" and "bi'Vehemah," we would have thought that the verse is saying that a human firstborn son cannot be Makdish any item. The actual verse reads, "Ach Bechor Asher Yevukar la'Sh-m bi'Vehemah, Lo Yakdish Ish Oso, Im Shor Im Seh, la'Sh-m Hu" (Vayikra 27:26).
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks of grain that inadvertently slipped out of the reaper's hand while he harvested them (by cutting them underneath with a sickle) or while he uprooted them (if he is not using a sickle) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #218; see Pe'ah 4:10 and Chidushei Anshei Shem). Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10), "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.
3)[line 28]הרי זה ולד (זבחי) שלמיםHAREI ZEH VLAD (ZIVCHEI) SHELAMIM- this is the offspring of a Korban Shelamim. Rebbi Meir considers the offspring to be a Shelamim even when the owner did not intend for it to be a Shelamim. Rebbi Meir maintains that since the owner verbally pronounced it as a "Shelamim," we apply the principle of "Devarim sheb'Lev Einam Devarim," intentions in a person's heart (that he has not expressed verbally) are not binding.
4)[line 33]עובר לאו ירך אמוUBAR LAV YERECH IMO
There is a Machlokes whether "Ubar Yerech Imo" - "a fetus is no more than a thigh of its mother" (i.e. it is considered a part of its mother), or whether the mother and its fetus are considered to be two different entities. The Gemara here understands from the words of Rebbi Yochanan that he maintains that they are two different entities with regard to being Makdish one without the other.
5)[line 38]שפחה ... בן חוריןSHIFCHAH ... BEN CHORIN (GET SHICHRUR)
(a)A Jew who owns a Nochri slave (an Eved Kena'ani) or maidservant (Shifchah Kena'anis) may release the slave from bondage in one of two ways: by accepting payment for the slave's release, or by giving the slave a "Get Shichrur," or bill of release (Kidushin 22b). If the slave is not released in one of these two ways, he is still considered to be a slave for all Halachic matters (such as with regard to whom he is allowed to marry and what Mitzvos he is obligated to keep).
(b)Like a Get given to a woman to divorce her, a Get Shichrur must be given during the lifetime of the master, and it is not effective if given after the master's death (rather, the heirs inherit the slave).
6)[line 36]אדם מתכפר בשבח הקדשADAM MISKAPER B'SHEVACH HEKDESH- that a person may fulfill his obligation to bring a Korban with the "increase" of Hekdesh, such as if the animal gives birth. If the owner wants, he may bring the offspring of his Chatas as a Korban instead of the mother.
7)[line 45]תוך כדי דבור כדבור דמיTOCH KEDEI DIBUR K'DIBUR DAMI
"Toch Kedei Dibur" is the length of time that it takes for a student to say a greeting to his teacher (e.g. "Shalom Alecha Rebbi"). "K'Dibur Dami" means that within this small amount of time, we view an act or speech as not yet completed and still continuing. Thus, even though the person has, with regard to his actions, already stopped performing the act, within this amount of time he may act or say something that will abrogate his previous actions or words, or he may add something to his previous words which will be considered to have been said at the same time as his previous words.
8)[line 46]עייוני הוא דקמעייןIYUNEI HU DEKA'ME'AYEIN- he is delving into the matter (and had no change of mind at all)