TEMURAH 16 (3 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter Diane Koenigsberg and her husband Dr. Andy Koenigsberg. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael continue in all of his descendants.

[16a - 52 lines; 16b - 17 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 16a [line 8]:

"Amar Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha Af Chatas ... Shel Moshe" אמר רבי יצחק נפחא אף חטאת ... של משה

It appears from Rashi that this phrase belongs above, before "Amru Lo l'Yehoshua" אמרו לו ליהושע

[2] Gemara [line 13]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #5; this is Rashi's Girsa as well

[3] Gemara [line 29]:

"Amrah Lo Mah Chamor Zeh" אמרה לו מה חמור זה

The words "Amrah Lo" אמרה לו are unnecessary (Olas Shlomo)

[4] Gemara [line 32]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10; this is the Girsa of Rashi and Rabeinu Gershom as well (as in Hagahos ha'Gra #3 but unlike the Bach #4)

[5] Rashi 16a DH v'Nishtakchu ד"ה ונשתכחו:

The words "Yehoshua b'Atzmo" יהושוע בעצמו

should be "Yehoshua she'Nishtabe'ach b'Atzmo" יהושוע שנשתבח בעצמו (this is also the intended Girsa of Shitah Mekubetzes #27)

[6] Rashi DH Yevakesh Mimenu Mezonos ד"ה יבקש ממנו מזונות

This Dibur ha'Maschil should begin "Yevakesh Mimeni Mezonos" יבקש ממני מזונות, as is found in Rabeinu Gershom and Hagahos ha'Gra #3; see Bava Metzia 84b

[7] Rashi DH v'Ish Techachim ד"ה ואיש תככים:

The words "she'Musmach Beinoni" שמוסמך בינוני are apparently unnecessary (Olas Shlomo; see Hagahos ha'Gra #9)

[8] Rashi 16b DH Shtei Shichechos ד"ה שתי שכחות:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #17 and #20

[9] Rashi DH Shtei Shichechos ד"ה שתי שכחות (the second one, near the end of the page):

The words "Mafsekah ha'Shas" מפסקה הש"ס

should be "Afsekah ha'Shas" אפסקה הש"ס


1)[line 1]סמיכהSEMICHAH

Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press both of his hands on the head of his animal Korban, as described in Vayikra (1:4). See Background to Temurah 2:4.

2)[line 22]טורדןTORDAN- make them weary

3)[line 27]"וילכדה עתניאל בן קנז אחי כלב ויתן לו את עכסה בתו לאשה""VA'YILKEDAH OSNI'EL BEN KENAZ ACHI CHALEV, VA'YITEN LO ES ACHSAH VITO L'ISHAH." - "And Osni'el the son of Kenaz, the brother of Kalev, captured it (Kiryas Sefer); and he (Kalev) gave to him Achsah his daughter as a wife." (Yehoshua 15:17) (OSNI'EL BEN KENAZ)

(a)Osni'el ben Kenaz, the first Shofet of Yisrael, was the half-brother and son-in-law of Kalev ben Yefuneh. The Gemara relates that during the mourning period for Moshe Rabeinu many Halachos and teachings of the Torah were forgotten. Osni'el ben Kenaz reinstated them with his profound scholarship and reasoning.

(b)During the early days of the conquest of Eretz Yisrael, Kalev ben Yefuneh offered an incentive to any man who would conquer the city of Devir (Kiryas Sefer) — he would give that person the hand of his daughter, Achsah, in marriage. Kalev's own half-brother, Osni'el ben Kenaz, accepted the challenge and took the city. The Gemara here explains that the name Kiryas Sefer is not only the name of a city, but an allusion to the fact that Osni'el was able to "read the book" (Keri'as Sefer), i.e., restore the forgotten laws of the Torah.

4)[line 28]"ויהי בבואה ותסיתהו לשאל מאת אביה שדה ותצנח מעל החמור""VA'YEHI B'VO'AH, VA'TESISEHU LI'SH'OL ME'ES AVIHAH SADEH, VA'TITZNACH ME'AL HA'CHAMOR [VA'YOMER LAH KALEV, 'MAH LACH'?] VA'TOMER, 'TENAH LI BERACHAH KI ERETZ HA'NEGEV NESATANI, V'NASATA LI GULOS MAYIM!' VA'YITEN LAH ES GULOS ILIYOS V'ES GULOS TACHTIYOS." - "And it was upon her arrival, that she persuaded him (Osni'el) into allowing her to request a field from her father. Then she slid off her donkey, [and Kalev said to her, 'What do you want?'] And she said, 'Give me a (source of) blessing, for you have given me arid land. Give me springs of water!' So he gave her the upper springs and the lower springs." (Yehoshua 15:18/19) (OSNI'EL, KALEV, AND ACHSAH).

(a)See above, entry #3.

(b)Achsah was hinting to her father that just as a donkey that has no food in its feeding-trough begins to bray, a woman who does not have adequate sustenance in her home begins to complain.

5)[line 30]"ותאמר תנה לי ברכה כי ארץ הנגב נתתני בית שמנוגב מכל טובה ונתתה לי גולות מים. ויתן לה כלב את גולות עליות ואת גולות תחתיות""VA'TOMER: TENAH LI VERACHAH, KI ERETZ HA'NEGEV NESATANI, V'NASATAH LI GULOS MAYIM. VA'YITEN LAH ES GULOS ILIYOS V'ES GULOS TACHTIYOS."- "And she said, give me a blessing, for you have given me the land of the Negev, give me also pools of water; and he gave her the upper pools and the lower pools." (Yehoshua 15:19)

6)[line 33]שפנה מעצת מרגליםSHE'PANAH ME'ATZAS MERAGLIM- he turned away from the evil counsel of the spies

7)[line 34]חורגיהCHORGEI- his step-son

8)[line 34]יהודה אחי שמעון שמוYEHUDAH ACHI SHIMON SHEMO- Yehudah, the brother of Shimon, was his name. The verses in Shoftim (1:2-3) relate that HaSh-m instructed a person named "Yehudah" to begin the battle of conquest in Eretz Yisrael after the death of Yehoshua. This Yehudah said to his brother, Shimon, "Come up to battle with me for my portion...." The simple explanation of these verses is that the names Yehudah and Shimon refer to the tribes of Yehudah and Shimon, but the Gemara interprets these names as names of individuals. Yehudah was Osni'el (see above, entry #3), and he had a brother named Shimon. (See also Rashi to Shoftim ibid., and Maharsha here.)

9)[line 35]"ויקרא יעבץ לאלקי ישראל""VA'YIKRA YABETZ LE'LOKEI YISRAEL..."- "Yabetz called out to the G-d of Israel, saying, 'If You bless me and enlarge my borders, and Your hand is with me, and You keep me from harm, that I should experience no sadness.' And G-d granted him that which he requested." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 4:10) - Yabetz was a descendant of Yehudah, and he requested of HaSh-m that He grant him a large piece of territory. The Gemara identifies Yabetz as Osni'el (see above, entry #3), and it understands his request for acquisition of territory as an allegory for the attainment of Torah knowledge.

10)[line 38]שלא ישגבני יצה''ר מלשנותSHE'LO YESAGVEINI YETZER HA'RA MI'LISHNOS- that the Yetzer ha'Ra should not have power over me to prevent me from learning

11)[line 39]הריני הולך (לנסיסי) [בנסיסי] לשאולHAREINI HOLECH (LI'NESISI) [BI'NESISI] LI'SHE'OL- I will go in grief to the grave

12)[line 39]כיוצא בדבר אתה אומרKA'YOTZEI BA'DAVAR ATAH OMER- That is, just as HaSh-m answers a person who requests to be taught Torah, so should a Torah scholar answer such a request (RASHI, RABEINU GERSHOM)

13)[line 39]"רש ואיש תככים נפגשו מאיר עיני שניהם ה'""RASH V'ISH TECHACHIM NIFGASHU, ME'IR EINI SHENEIHEM HASH-M."- "The poor man and the broken man have met with each other, HaSh-m enlightens the eyes of both." (Mishlei 29:13) - The Gemara interprets "the poor man" to be one who is "poor" in Torah learning, and the "broken man" to be one who is average in Torah learning.


14)[line 2]ארבעה נתנו להן והעמידום על חמשARBA'AH NITNU LAHEN, V'HE'EMIDUM AL CHAMESH- the law concerning four Chata'os that must be left to die was given as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. The law of a fifth Chatas that is left to graze was also given as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, but during the mourning period for Moshe Rabeinu, the people forgot which Chatas must be left to graze. Because of the doubt involved, the Rabanan were stringent and decreed that all five must be left to die. (The fact that one of the five must be left to die only mid'Rabanan is not relevant to the Gemara's answer. The Gemara means that the Chata'os that are left to die (mid'Oraisa) can be compared to each other; all involve the same type of Korban, either a Korban Tzibur or a Korban Yachid. Obviously, they cannot all involve a Korban Tzibur (since some of the Korbanos, such as Temurah, do not apply to a Tzibur). Therefore, the Korbanos that must be left to die must all involve the Korban of an individual. (RASHI DH Shtei Shichechos, TOSFOS DH v'Chi Danin)