KELIM WITH MULTIPLE USES
(Mishnah 5): The one selected to take the Machtah (pan) went up onto the Mizbe'ach and pushed aside (the top) coals and scooped out (glowing coals) in a silver pan. He descended and poured them into a gold pan.
About a Kav of coals scattered. (The silver pan held four Kavim, and the gold pan held only three.) They were swept into the Amah (lest someone get burned);
On Shabbos, they were not swept (for this extinguishes, or because they are Muktzah). They were covered with a Pesachter, a big bowl holding 15 Se'ah;
There were two chains on the Pesachter. One was used to pull it down (from the Mizbe'ach when it was full of ashes), and the other was used to hold it from above (so it would not topple over).
It had three uses -- to cover coals or (dead) Sheratzim on Shabbos, and to take down ashes from the Mizbe'ach.
(Mishnah 6): When they reached between the Ulam and Mizbe'ach, one of them took the Magreifah and threw it between the Ulam and Mizbe'ach. (Ra'avad - this is the musical instrument discussed on 30b. Rosh - it is a fork used to rake ashes on the Mizbe'ach. Tosfos Yom Tov - it is a third Kli with the same name.)
(At this time) one could not hear his friend talking in Yerushalayim due to the Magreifah.
It had three uses;
When a Kohen hears it, he knows that the Kohanim are entering to bow, so he runs to join them;
When a Levi hears it, he knows that the Leviyim are entering to sing, so he runs to join them;
(Ma'amados were divisions of Yisraelim, they were Sheluchim for all of Yisrael to be present at the offering of Korbanos Tzibur.) At this time the head of the Ma'amad would gather the Teme'im in the eastern gate. (These were Tamei Kohanim. The shame would make them more careful in the future. Alternatively, they were gathered lest people suspect that they did not want (to desist from their jobs) to serve. Alternatively, they were Metzora'im waiting for blood of the Asham to be put on them.)
BURNING THE KETORES
(Mishnah 1): They (the Kohanim selected for offering the Ketores) started ascending the steps to the Ulam. The ones selected for Dishun of the inner Mizbe'ach and Menorah went in front of them.
The one who would be Medashen the inner Mizbe'ach entered, took the basket (from where he left it, as mentioned at the end of the third Perek), bowed (for now his Avodah was finished) and left;
(According to Rashba, this Mishnah refers to Dishun of the Menorah in the afternoon.) The one who would be Medashen the Menorah entered and found the two western (some texts - eastern) lamps burning. He would be Medashen the Menorah, leaving the Ner Ma'aravi burning, for it is used to light the others in the afternoon. (According to Rashba, this Mishnah refers to Dishun in the afternoon.)
If it had extinguished, he would be Medashen it and light it (with fire) from the outer Mizbe'ach;
He took the cup from the second step, bowed and left.
The one selected to take the pan dropped coals on top of the Mizbe'ach in a pile, and flattened them out with the bottom of the pan. He bowed and left.
The one selected for (Haktaras) Ketores took the spoon of Ketores from the ladle, and gave it to his friend or relative (whom he picked to help him. The latter poured the Ketores into the Maktir's hands);
If any of the Ketores had spilled from the spoon into the ladle, the helper put it in the Maktir's hands;
They would instruct the Maktir "do not start dropping Ketores (onto the coals) right in front of you (for it will make a flame), lest (when you extend your hands to drop over the further coals) you get burned."
Version #1: The Maktir began to spread the Ketores over the coals, v'Yatza. (Rosh - he drew his hands towards himself; Rashash - the one instructing him left.)
Version #2 (Meleches Shlomo): The Maktir flattened out the coals some more, (alternatively - the one who had flattened out the coals, i.e.) the one selected to hold the pan left;
(Even so,) the Maktir would not burn the Ketores until the appointee told him to.
If the Kohen Gadol was the Maktir, the appointee would say "my master, Kohen Gadol, burn!"
Everyone left (the area between the Ulam and Mizbe'ach, for no one may be there at the time of Avodah in the Heichal). He was Maktir, bowed and left.
WHEN THE KOHEN GADOL WANTS TO SERVE
(Mishnah 1): When the Kohen Gadol entered (the Heichal) to bow, three Kohanim held him, one on his right, one on his left, and one held the precious stones (on the shoulders of the Efod, or of the Choshen);
Version #1: When they heard his steps (the bells of the Me'il, when he was) leaving (his room in the Azarah in order to enter the Heichal), they lifted the Paroches for him. He entered, bowed and left;
Version #2: When they heard him leaving (the Heichal), they lifted the Paroches for him. (Gra - they did not need to lift it when he entered, for his body pushed it aside. Tosfos Yom Tov - the Paroches was normally open. they closed it only when the Kohen Gadol entered, for his honor, to show that he is alone with Hash-m.) The appointee entered, bowed and left;
All the Kohanim entered, bowed and left.
(Mishnah 2): They stood on the steps to the Ulam. There were five Kohanim holding Kelim. They stood to the south of the others;
They held the basket (for Dishun of the inner Mizbe'ach), the flask (for Dishun of the Menorah), the pan, the spoon, and the ladle with its cover.
They gave one Berachah to the people.
Outside the Mikdash, Birkas Kohanim is said as three Berachos (people answer Amen in between). In the Mikdash, it is said like one.
In the Mikdash, Hash-m's name is said as it is written (Yud-Heh). Outside, they say a different name (Alef-Dalet);
Outside, the Kohanim lift their hands to shoulder height. In the Mikdash, they raise their hands above their heads, except for the Kohen Gadol, since he may not raise his hands above the Tzitz;
R. Yehudah says, even the Kohen Gadol raises his hands above his head -- "va'Yisa Aharon Es Yadav El ha'Am va'Yevarachem."
(Mishnah 3): When the Kohen Gadol wanted to burn (the limbs of the Tamid), he ascended the ramp with the Segan on his right side. When they were half-way up, the Segan helped him up the rest of the way;
The first (of the 11 Kohanim selected to offer the Tamid) handed the head and hind leg to the Kohen Gadol. He was Somech on them and threw them onto the fire. (This is not real Semichah. It is merely for the honor of the Kohen Gadol.)
The second handed the forelegs to the first, he handed it to the Kohen Gadol, who was Somech on them and threw them onto the fire;
The second went away. All the others did likewise. The Kohen Gadol was Somech on and threw the limbs;
If the Kohen Gadol wanted, he did Semichah and others did Zerikah.
(If he wanted to offer the Nesachim,) he circled around (on top of) the Mizbe'ach, traversing the southeast, northeast, northwest and southwest corners (turning over limbs not yet consumed on the way). They gave the wine to him. (When a regular Kohen was Menasech, he took the wine himself, and therefore he did not circle the Mizbe'ach, lest the smoke ruin the wine.)
SHIRAH OF THE LEVIYIM
The Segan stood on the corner, holding flags. Two Kohanim stood by the marble table (near the Mizbe'ach on which the limbs were placed), holding trumpets. They blew Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah.
The trumpeters stood to the right and left of Ben Arza. When the Kohen Gadol bent down to pour the wine, the Segan waved the flags, and Ben Arza banged the cymbals. The Leviyah sang Shirah.
At the end of each chapter (of Tehilim), they blew Teki'ah and the people bowed.
This was the Seder of Avodah in Beis Elokeinu. May it be His will to rebuild it soon in our days!
(Mishnah 4): The Leviyim would sing Tehilim corresponding to the days of Creation (Gra, based on Zohar - each corresponded to a millenium of the world):
On Sunday, they would sing "la'Hashem ha'Aretz u'Melo'ah." (His ownership of the world began with Creation, on Yom Rishon.)
On Monday, they would sing "Gadol Hash-m u'Mehulal Me'od." (On Yom Sheni He separated His works and reigned over them.)
On Tuesday, they would sing "Elokim Nitzav ba'Adas Kel." (He revealed the land and prepared it for His assembly.)
On Wednesday, they would sing "Kel Nekamos Hash-m." (He will avenge those who worship the sun and moon, which were created on this day.)
On Thursday, they would sing "Harninu l'Elokim Uzenu." (People praise Him when they see the variety of birds and fish he created on this day.)
On Friday, they would sing "Hash-m Malach." (He finished His work and reigned over it.)
On Shabbos they would sing "Mizmor Shir l'Yom ha'Shabbos" -- a song for the future, for a day that is entirely Shabbos and eternal Menuchah.