TA'ANIS?15?(28 Sivan) - Dedicated in memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev (ben Rav Avrohom Tzvi) Gustman, zt"l, Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivas Netzach Yisrael-Ramailes (Vilna-Brooklyn-Yerushalayim), author of "Kuntresei Shi'urim" and renowned Dayan in pre-war and post-war Vilna, on his 21st Yahrzeit. Dedicated by his talmidim, Harav Avraham Feldman and Michael Starr of Yerushalayim, Dr. Yehoshua Daniel of Efrat, and Rabbis Eliezer and Zalman Stern of New York, who merited to study under the Rosh Yeshiva zt"l in Yerushalayim.

1)

(a)In time to come, says Rebbi Elazar (commenting on a Pasuk in Yeshayah), kings will stand before Benei Yisrael and princes will prostrate themselves before them. In similar vein to the previous question, Rebbi Zeira (or Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni) disagrees with Rebbi Elazar. What does he say about the princes?

(b)What is the difference between a Tzadik or a Yashar?

(c)Which one is greater?

(d)In light of that, what does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak comment on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Or Zaru'a la'Tzadik, ul'Yishrei Lev, Simchah"?

1)

(a). In time to come, says Rebbi Elazar (commenting on a Pasuk in Yeshayah), kings will stand before Bnei Yisrael and princes will prostrate themselves before them. In similar vein to the previous question, Rebbi Zeira (or Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni) disagrees with Rebbi Elazar. According to him, the princes will prostrate themselves before Yisrael and stand before them as well.

(b)A Tzadik - is someone who overcomes his inclination to sin, whereas a Yashar does not have such an inclination in the first place (perhaps because he permanently overcame it).

(c)A Yashar - is greater (see also Rashba).

(d)In light of that, Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak comments on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Or Zaru'a la'Tzadik, ule'Yishrei Lev, Simchah" - that Tzadikim will experience light, but Yesharim, Simchah (see Tosfos).

HADRAN ALACH, 'ME'EIMASAI'

PEREK SEDER TA'ANIYOS

2)

(a)Our Mishnah describes the order of the Ta'aniyos. They would take the Aron ha'Kodesh into the street, and everyone took Efer Makleh and place it on his head. What is 'Efer Makleh'?

(b)Ashes were placed by others on the heads of two important dignitaries. Which two?

(c)The wisest elder among them would say captivating words, which included the Pasuk in Yo'el "Kir'u Levavchem v'Al Bigdeichem". What Musar would he give them based on Sefer Yonah?

(d)The Chazan had to have four qualities: he had to be a 'Zaken v'Ragil'. What does 'Ragil' mean?

(e)What were the other two?

2)

(a)Our Mishnah describes the order of the Ta'aniyos. They would take the Aron ha'Kodesh into the street, and everyone took Efer Makleh and put it on his head. 'Efer Makleh' - is ashes (as opposed to dust or earth).

(b)Ashes were placed by others on the heads of two important dignitaries - the Nasi and the Av Beis Din.

(c)The wisest elder among them would say captivating words, which included the Pasuk in Yo'el "Kir'u Levavchem v'Al Bigdeichem". Based on Sefer Yonah, he would remind the people that Hash-m did not forgive the people of Ninveh because of their sackcloth and fasting, but because they had changed their deeds.

(d)The Chazen had to have four qualities: he had to be a 'Zaken v'Ragil' - accustomed to Davening in front of the Amud.

(e)... and he had to have children and an empty house (which will be discussed in the Gemara).

3)

(a)When is Nevi'im referred to as 'Divrei Kabalah' and when is it not?

(b)The Chazan inserts six extra Berachos in the Amidah. Where does he add them?

(c)What are the first two Berachos, according to the Tana Kama?

(d)From which Sefer is the text of the other four taken?

(e)Which two Berachos does Rebbi Yehudah replace?

3)

(a)Nevi'im is referred to as 'Divrei Kabalah' whenever the Navi is warning Yisrael whereas whenever he is just relating a narrative, it is not.

(b)The Chazan inserted six extra Berachos in the Amidah - after 'Go'el Yisrael'.

(c)According to the Tana Kama - the first two Berachos are Zichronos and Shofros.

(d)The text of each the other four - is taken from Tehilim.

(e)Rebbi Yehudah replaces the Berachos of Zichronos and Shofros with a text taken from Tehilim and Yirmeyahu respectively.

4)

(a)Why does the Tana list seven 'conclusions' to the Berachos, when really, only six are added? Which 'conclusion' does not belong to the list?

(b)What is the connection between ...

1. ... 'Zichronos' and our Fathers at the Yam Suf?

2. ... 'Shofros' and Yehoshua at Gilgal?

(c)'Zichronos' ends 'Baruch ... Zocher ha'Nishkachos'. How does Shofros end?

4)

(a)The Tana lists seven 'conclusions' to the Berachos, when really, only six are added - because it includes 'Mi she'Anah es Avraham b'Har ha'Mori'ah ... ', which is really the 'conclusion' of the Berachah of Re'eh v'Anyeinu' (and not part of the extra six Berachos at all).

(b)The connection between ...

1. ... 'Zichronos' and our Fathers at the Yam Suf - is based on the fact that whilst Yisrael was in Egypt, it seemed as if they had been forgotten, and now they were finally remembered.

2. ... 'Shofros' and Yehoshua at Gilgal - is the fact that it was whilst Yisrael were encamped there that they defeated Yericho through the blowing of the Shofros.

(c)Zichronos' ends 'Baruch ... Zocher ha'Nishkachos' - Shofros, 'Baruch ... Shome'a Teru'ah'.

5)

(a)The third Berachah reads 'el Hash-m ba'Tzarasah Li ... ', and concludes 'Mi she'Anah es Shmuel ... ', the fourth, 'Esa Einai el he'Harim', and the fifth, 'mi'Ma'amakim Kerasicha Hashem'. Which Tzadik is referred to in the conclusion of ...

1. ... the fourth Berachah?

2. ... the fifth Berachah?

(b)The third Berachah ends 'Baruch ... Shome'a Tze'akah'. How does the fourth Berachah end?

(c)The final Berachah begins 'Tefilah l'Ani Ki Ya'atof'. Which Tzadikim are referred to at the conclusion of this Berachah?

(d)The fifth Berachah ends 'Baruch ... ha'Oneh b'Es Tzarah'. How does the final Berachah end?

5)

(a)The third Berachah reads 'el Hash-m ba'Tzarasah Li ... ', and concludes 'Mi she'Anah es Shmuel ... ', the fourth, 'Esa Einai el he'Harim', and the fifth, 'mi'Ma'amakim Kerasicha Hashem'. In the 'conclusion' of ...

1. ... the fourth Berachah - we refer to the Tzadik Shmuel.

2. ... the fifth Berachah - to Eliyahu.

(b)The third Berachah ends 'Baruch Shome'a Tze'akah' - the fourth, 'Baruch ... Shome'a Tefilah'.

(c)The final Berachah begins 'Tefilah l'Ani Ki Ya'atof'. In the 'conclusion' of this Berachah - we refer to David and Shlomo.

(d)The fifth Berachah ends 'Baruch ... ha'Oneh b'Es Tzarah'. The final one - 'Baruch ... ha'Merachem al ha'Aretz'.

15b----------------------------------------15b

6)

(a)What happened when, in the days of Rebbi Chalafta and Rebbi Chananya ben T'radyon, the Chazan concluded the Berachah of Go'eil Yisrael?

(b)On what grounds did the Chachamim object?

(c)Who announced 'Tik'u ha'Kohanim, Tik'u' or 'Hari'u ha'Kohanim, Hari'u' before each Berachah?

(d)When did they blow Teki'ah and when did they blow Teru'ah? How many notes did they blow?

6)

(a)When, in the days of Rebbi Chalafta and Rebbi Chananya ben Tradyon, the Chazan concluded the Berachah of Go'eil Yisrael - nobody answered 'Amein' (Presumably, they answered 'Baruch Shem ... ' instead - see Ran).

(b)The Chachamim objected on the grounds that this Minhag was confined to the Beis Hamikdash.

(c)It was the Shamash who announced 'Tik'u ha'Kohanim, Tik'u'! or 'Hari'u ha'Kohanim, Hari'u'! before each Berachah.

(d)They blew a Teki'ah - after 'Go'el Yisrael', a Teru'ah after Zichronos, and a Tek'iah after Shofros, and so on - seven notes all in all.

7)

(a)Who were ...

1. ... the 'Anshei Mishmar'?

2. ... the 'Anshei Beis Av'?

(b)During the first set of fasts, according to Rebbi Yehoshua, the Anshei Beis Av did not fast at all. What about the Anshei Mishmar?

(c)During the second set of fasts, the Anshei Mishmar were obligated to complete the fast. What about the Anshei Beis Av?

(d)This is the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua; the Chachamim are more lenient than him. According to them, what did the Anshei Mishmar and the Anshei Beis Av do ...

1. ... during the first set of fasts?

2. ... during the second set?

7)

(a)The ...

1. ... 'Anshei Mishmar' - comprised the members of the entire group of Kohanim who served throughout that week.

2. ... 'Anshei Beis Av' - comprised one of the seven groups into which each Mishmar was divided, each group serving one day of the week (others say that the Mishmar was divided into six groups, each of which served on one of the weekdays, whilst on Shabbos, all the six groups would serve).

(b)During the first set of fasts, according to Rebbi Yehoshua, the Anshei Beis Av would not fast at all the Anshei Mishmar however - would fast, but would eat before nightfall.

(c)During the second set of fasts, the Anshei Mishmar were obligated to complete the fast - and it was the Anshei Beis Av who would fast but eat before nightfall.

(d)This is the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua; the Chachamim are more lenient. According to them ...

1. ... during the first set of fasts - neither the Anshei Mishmar nor the Anshei Beis Av would fast at all.

2. ... during the second set - the Anshei Mishmar would fast, but they would eat before nightfall; whereas the Anshei Beis Av would still not fast at all.

8)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehoshua, both the Anshei Mishmar and the Anshei Beis Av had to complete the fast during the third set of fasts. What do the Chachamim say?

(b)The Anshei Beis Av were forbidden to drink wine for the twenty-four hour period that they were on duty. Why were they forbidden to do so even at night-time? What Avodah did the Anshei Beis Av perform during the night?

(c)The Anshei Mishmar were forbidden to drink wine during the day because they might be needed to assist in the Avodah. Why did this prohibition not extend to the night-time?

(d)The Anshei Beis Av and the Anshei Ma'amad (Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim whose turn it was that week to represent Yisrael to stand by the Korbenos Tzibur that were brought that week) were forbidden to have a hair-cut and to wash clothes during the week that they served, except for Thursday, when the prohibition was lifted because of Kavod Shabbos. Did this concession apply to the Anshei Mishmar, too?

8)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehoshua, both the Anshei Mishmar and the Anshei Beis Av had to complete the fast during the third set of fasts. According to the Chachamim - the Anshei Mishmar would complete the fast, the Anshei Beis Av would not.

(b)The Anshei Beis Av were forbidden to drink wine for the twenty-four hour period that they were on duty, even at night-time - because any limbs or parts of a Korban that they found off the Mizbe'ach, they had to take and place them on the Mizbe'ach.

(c)The Anshei Mishmar were forbidden to drink wine during the day because they might be needed to assist in the Avodah, a prohibition that did not extend to the night-time - because there was not so much to be done then that the Anshei Beis Av could not cope with it on their own.

(d)The Anshei Beis Av and the Anshei Ma'amad (Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim whose turn it was that week to represent Yisrael, to stand by the Korbenos Tzibur that were brought that week) were forbidden to have a haircut and to wash clothes during the week that they served, except for Thursday, when the prohibition was lifted because of Kavod Shabbos - a concession which applied to the Anshei Mishmar, too.

9)

(a)The days on which Megilas Ta'anis forbids even eulogizing, the prohibition extends to the day before, according to the Tana Kama. Why to the day before and not to the day after?

(b)What does Rebbi Yosi say?

(c)The days on which only fasting is prohibited, the prohibition is confined to the day itself, but not to the day before and the day after. What does Rebbi Yosi say?

9)

(a)The days on which Megilas Ta'anis forbids even eulogizing, the prohibition extends to the day before, according to the Tana Kama - in case one goes on to eulogize on the Yom Tov itself, but not to the day after (when that reason does not apply).

(b)According to Rebbi Yosi - the prohibition applies both to the day before and to the day after.

(c)The days on which only fasting is prohibited, the prohibition is confined to the day itself, but not to the day before or to the day after - Rebbi Yosi forbids the day before, but not the day after.

10)

(a)We have already learned that a series of fasts never begins on a Thursday, in order not to raise the prices before Shabbos. According to the Tana Kama however, the second set of fasts would begin on Thursday (where the first one had left off).. What does Rebbi Yosi say?

(b)Initially, one does not decree a fast on Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah or Purim. B'Di'eved however, once they began the fasts, should one of them fall on any of these three days, they fasted nonetheless. That is easily understood in the case of Chanukah and Purim, which are only mid'Rabanan; but why did they not change the date of the fast if it fell on Rosh Chodesh, which is called a 'Mo'ed' min ha'Torah?

(c)This is the opinion of Raban Gamliel. What does Rebbi Meir comment on that?

(d)Which other day does Rebbi Meir incorporate in this list?

10)

(a)We have already learned that a series of fasts never begins on a Thursday, in order not to raise the prices before Shabbos. According to the Tana Kama however, the second set of fasts would begin on Thursday (where the first one had left off). Rebbi Yosi says - that just as the first set of fasts cannot begin on Thursday, neither can the second.

(b)Initially, one does not decree a fast on Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah or Purim. Bedieved however, once they began the fasts, should one of them fall on any of these three days, they nevertheless fasted. This applies to Chanukah and Purim, which are only mid'Rabanan, as well to Rosh Chodesh, because, although it is a Mo'ed min ha'Torah - it is not a Yom 'Mishteh v'Simchah'.

(c)This is the opinion of Raban Gamliel, Rebbi Meir comments that - even though Raban Gamliel maintains that one does fast on these three days, one does not however, complete the fast.

(d)Rebbi Meir incorporates - Tisha b'Av that falls on Friday in this list.

11)

(a)During which set of fasts did they take the Aron ha'Kodesh out into the street?

(b)It is evident from the Beraisa that the author of our Mishnah who says that it is ashes that they placed on their heads, is Rebbi Yosi. Why does he insist on ashes and not just earth, like the Tana Kama of the Beraisa?

(c)From whom does Rebbi learn that in matters ...

1. ... of greatness one begins from the greatest?

2. ... of punishment one begins from the smallest?

(d)Then how do we explain the fact that, in our Mishnah, they first placed the ashes on the heads of the leading dignitaries and only then on their own heads?

11)

(a)They took the Aron ha'Kodesh out into the street - only on the third set of fasts.

(b)It is evident from the Beraisa that the author of our Mishnah who says that it was ashes that they placed on their heads, is Rebbi Yosi. The reason that he insists on ashes and not just earth, like the Tana Kama of the Beraisa - is because it is reminiscent of the ashes of Yitzchak (i.e. of the ram) of the Akedah.

(c)Rebbi learns that in matters ...

1. ... of greatness one begins from the most eminent person - from Moshe, who first addressed Aharon and then Aharon's sons, Elazar and Isamar.

2. ... of punishment one begins from the smallest - from Hash-m, who first cursed the snake, then Chavah and then Adam.

(d)In our Mishnah, they nevertheless first placed the ashes on the heads of the leading dignitaries and only then on their own heads - because although we are dealing with a case of curse, by placing the ashes first on the heads of the important dignitaries, one was acknowledging their greatness (implying that they were the ones who were fit to Daven on their behalf).

12)

(a)Why did others need to place the ashes on the heads of the leading dignitaries, whilst everybody else placed them on their own heads?

(b)What does Rebbi Yitzchak derive from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Lasum la'Avelei Tziyon Laseis Lahem Efer Tachas Pe'er"?

12)

(a)The reason that others needed to place the ashes on the heads of the leading dignitaries, whilst everybody else placed the ashes on their own heads - is because with important people, the embarrassment is far greater when they are shamed by others than when they shame themselves (which is not the case by ordinary people).

(b)Rebbi Yitzchak derives from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Lasum la'Avelei Tziyon Laseis Lahem Efer Tachas Pe'er" that the ashes should be placed on the head, on the place where the Tefilin normally lie.

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