SUKAH 32 (30 Av 5781) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Esther Chaya Rayzel (Friedman) bas Gershon Eliezer (Yahrzeit: 30 Av) by her son-in-law, Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel. Esther Friedman was a woman of valor who was devoted to her family and gave of herself unstintingly, inspiring all those around her.

[32a - 31 lines; 32b - 54 lines]

1a)[line 1]קווץKAVUTZ- a) that has thorny spikes along its spine (RASHI); b) that is [shriveled and] wrinkled (ARUCH; this translation follows his Girsa of "Kavutz" spelled with a Kaf instead of a Kuf)

b)[line 1]סדוקSADUK- split

c)[line 1]עקום דומה למגלAKUM DOMEH L'MAGAL- curved like a sickle

d)[line 1]חרותCHARUS- a mature date-palm branch that has become hard like wood

e)[line 2]דומה לחרותDOMEH L'CHARUS- a date-palm branch that has not yet fully hardened

f)[line 3]דעביד כהימנקD'AVID K'HEIMNEK- [that which a split Lulav is invalid refers to one whose tip] appears as that of an iron scorer (O.F. pointer) [which resembles a two-tined fork]

2)[line 4]לפניוLEFANAV- [bent] back away from its spine

3)[line 5]ברייתיה הואBERIYASEI HU- this is its natural form

4)[line 7]דסליק בחד הוצאD'SALIK B'CHAD HUTZA- a) all of whose leaves grow on only one side of its spine (RASHI); b) all of whose leaves are single-sided [as opposed to a normal Lulav leaf, which is doubled] (RAMBAM); c) whose central leaf is single-sided (KOL BO, cited by the REMA OC 645:3)

5)[line 9]דעביד כי חופיאD'AVID KI CHUFYA- that is made like a broom (O.F. escove - brooms, brushes) [in that a) its leaves are detached from its spine and are tied in a bundle at one end (RASHI); b) most of its double leaves are split (TOSFOS, ROSH)]

6)[line 9]דאיפרוד אפרודיD'IFRUD IFRUDEI- that its leaves have spread [and fanned out from the spine, no longer lying alongside it]

7a)[line 10]נחלקה התיומתNECHLEKAH HA'TEYOMES- if the upper central leaf has split [along with the upper part of the spine] (RASHI; see Insights)

b)[line 15]ניטלה התיומתNITLAH HA'TEYOMES- if the upper central leaf has been removed

8a)[line 20]חרותאCHARUSA- see above, entry #1:e

b)[line 20]אופתאUFTA- (O.F. estele - a piece of wood) part of a date-palm trunk

c)[line 22]כופראKUFRA- a date-palm branch that has not yet fully hardened [and whose leaves can still be bound to lie alongside its spine]

9)[line 22]"דְּרָכֶיהָ דַרְכֵי נֹעַם, וְכָל נְתִיבוֹתֶיהָ שָׁלוֹם""DERACHEHA DARCHEI NO'AM, V'CHOL NESIVOSEHA SHALOM" KSIV- "Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all of her pathways peace" (Mishlei 3:17). This verse refers to the Torah. Since a Kufra has spiky thorns that would slash one's hands when he attempted to hold it, it cannot be that the Torah intended one to do so.

10)[line 24]רבא תוספאהRAVA TOSFA'AH- a) Rava who relates Tosefta'os (see RASHI to Avodah Zarah 9a DH Tana Tosfa'ah in the middle of the Amud); b) Rava who reads verses as if there were no missing letter (see Rashi to Avodah Zarah 9a DH Tana Tosfa'ah at the end of the Amud); c) Rava who writes words without any missing letters (see Aruch Erech Sefer #2)

11)[line 24]תרתי כפי דתמריTARTEI KAFEI D'TAMREI- two clusters of dates

12)[line 27]ראשו של זה מגיע לצד עיקרו של זהROSHO SHEL ZEH MAGI'A L'TZAD IKARO SHEL ZEH- the tip of each leaf reaches to the bottom of the one [above it]


13)[line 7]תמרותTEMAROS- date-palms

14)[line 7]גיא בן הנםGEI BEN HINOM- the valley of Ben Hinom, located southwest of the Old City of Yerushalayim

15a)[line 12]שלשהSHELOSHAH- three [Tefachim]

b)[line 12]ארבעהARBA'AH- four [Tefachim]

16)[line 14]שדרו של לולבSHEDRO SHEL LULAV- the spine of the Lulav; the darker green central backbone from which the leaves sprout

17)[line 21]אמה בת חמשה טפחיםAMAH BAS CHAMISHAH TEFACHIM- (Rava assumes that this means that) [the Hadasim and Aravos must be as long] as an Amah that contains five Tefachim. An Amah generally refers to a measurement containing six Tefachim; however, five-Tefach Amos are used for certain purposes.

18)[line 21]שרא ליה מריה לר' טרפון!SHARA LEI MAREI L'REBBI TARFON!- his Master should forgive Rebbi Tarfon!; i.e., Rebbi Tarfon must ask forgiveness from HaSh-m for saying such a thing

19)[line 22]עבותAVOS- braided. This is the way in which the Torah describes a Hadas; it means that there must be many sets of three leaves growing from the same point on the branch, each set close enough to the one above it that its tips cover the bottoms of that set. This must be the case along most of the required length of each Hadas.

20)[line 24]עשה אותה בת חמשהASEI OSAH BAS CHAMISHAH- divide it into five equal parts

21)[line 25]השארHA'SHAR- an additional [a) proportionate fourth Amah (RASHI); b) Amah of regular length (RAN)]

22)[line 26]תלתא ותלתא חומשיTELASA U'TELASA CHUMSHEI- three and three fifths

23)[line 30]לא דקLO DAK- [Shmuel] was not exacting in his calculation

24)[line 38]אשרהASHEIRAH- a tree that had been worshipped as an Avodah Zarah. (Asheirah was a popular fertility goddess in the Near East. She is identified with Astarte (Ashteros) and Aphrodite.)

25)[line 38]עיר הנדחתIR HA'NIDACHAS

If an entire city has strayed (Nidach) to the extent that most of its inhabitants practice idolatry, it must be eradicated. All those who worshipped idols are put to death, while the buildings of the city are razed and its possessions burned (Devarim 13:13-19). Those righteous individuals who did not sin are allowed to remain alive, but they must leave the city bereft of all that they owned.

26)[line 39]נפרצו עליוNIFRETZU ALAV- if its leaves are a) detached [and tied back on] (RASHI); b) cracked and split (BA'AL HA'ITUR, cited by the ROSH)

27)[line 40]שהיו ענביו מרובות מעליוANAVAV MERUBOS ME'ALAV- if it has more berries than leaves

28)[line 42]ענפיו חופין את עצוANAFAV CHOFIN ES ETZO- its leaves cover its wood

29a)[line 43]זיתאZEISA- an olive tree [which has many long, thin leaves]

b)[line 44]דולבאDULBA- (O.F. chastenier) a sycamore tree [whose leaves give a braided impression]

c)[line 44]הירדוףHIRDUF- an oleander bush [which has spiky leaves]

30)[line 45]"... [וְ]הָאֱמֶת וְהַשָּׁלוֹם אֱהָבוּ!""... [VE]HA'EMES VEHA'SHALOM EHAVU!" - "So says HaSh-m, Host of Legions: 'The fast of the fourth month [Shiv'ah Asar b'Tamuz], the fast of the fifth month [Tish'ah b'Av], the fast of the seventh month [Tzom Gedalyah], and the fast of the tenth month [Asarah b'Teves] will be transformed for Yisrael into festivals of rejoicing and happiness, [provided that] you shall love truth and peace'" (Zecharyah 8:19) (DIFFERENCES OF THE TIMES OF MASHI'ACH)

(a)In this verse, the Navi Zecharyah describes some of the changes that will occur when Mashi'ach comes.

(b)Rava understands that this is a general guideline for how one ought to conduct his life. Oleander leaves cannot therefore be what the Torah desires as part of the Arba Minim; as they are ingredients used in fatal poisons, they represent neither truth nor peace.

31a)[line 46]קלוע כמין קליעהKELU'A K'MIN KELI'AH- plaited like a braid

b)[line 46]ודומה לשלשלתV'DOMEH L'SHALSHELES- and similar to a chain

32)[line 47]עץ שטעם עצו ופריו שוהETZ SHE'TA'AM ETZO U'PIRYO SHAVEH- a tree whose wood and fruit have the same taste. It is difficult to understand how the verse implies this trait, as well as how it applies to a Hadas. The Girsa of the RIF in manuscripts is ETZ SHE'TA'AM ETZO V'ANAFAV" SHAVEH - a tree whose wood and leaves* have the same taste. This still does not explain how it is implied in the verse. Another Girsa that seems satisfactory is ETZ SHE'ANAFAV CHOFIN ES ETZO (see above, entry #28). This is the Girsa of the RITVA, among others (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM).

33a)[line 49]תלתא תלתא טרפי בקינאTELASA TELASA TARFEI B'KINA- three leaves growing from one node

b)[line 49]תרי וחדTREI V'CHAD- [a pattern in which the leaves of the Hadas grow in alternating sets of] two [leaves] and [then] one

34)[line 50]מהדרMEHADER- searched

35)[line 50]נפיק מפומיה דרב כהנאNAFIK MI'PUMEI D'RAV KAHANA- it came out of the mouth of Rebbi Kahana

36)[line 51]הדס שוטהHADAS SHOTEH- a "foolish" Hadas; i.e., one invalid for use as part of the Arba Minim

37a)[line 51]נשרו רוב עליוNISHRU ROV ALAV- if most of its leaves fell off

b)[last line]נתריNASRI- fell off