12th CYCLE DEDICATION
SOTAH 40 (30 Sivan) - Dedicated by Dr. Alain Bitton of Geneva, Switzerland, in memory of his grandmother, Freha bat Haviva Bitton a"h.

1)

(a)What does Mar Zutra (or a Beraisa) say with regard to the three Pesukim in Tehilim "Hinei Chi-Chen Yevorach Gaver Yerei Hash-m"; "Yevarech'cha Hash-m mi'Tziyon, u'Re'eh b'Tuv Yerushalayim Kol Yemei Chayecha"; "u'Re'eh Vanim l'Vanecha Shalom Al Yisrael"? In the context of Duchening, when do the Tzibur recite them?

(b)According to Rav Yosef, the Tzibur recite one of the three Pesukim (in each of the above respective groups) after each Berachah. What does Rav Sheshes say?

(c)In another Machlokes, Rav Mari or Rav Zevid maintains that they recited one Pasuk after each Berachah. What does the other one say?

1)

(a)Mar Zutra (or a Beraisa) says that the Tzibur say the three Pesukim "Hinei Chi-Chen Yevorach Gaver Yerei Hash-m"; "Yevarech'cha Hash-m mi'Tziyon, u'Re'eh b'Tuv Yerushalayim Kol Yemei Chayecha"; "u'Re'eh Vanim l'Vanecha Shalom Al Yisrael" - at Ne'ilah on Yom Kippur (see Tos. DH 'bi'Ne'ilah').

(b)According to Rav Yosef, the Tzibur recite one of the three Pesukim (in each of the above respective groups) after each Berachah. Rav Sheshes says - that they recite it after the mention of Hash-m's Name.

(c)In another Machlokes, Rav Mari or Rav Zevid maintains that they recited one Pasuk after each Berachah - according to the other one, they recited all three Pesukim each time.

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Chiya bar Aba, the Tzibur only recite these Pesukim in the Beis-Hamikdash, but not elsewhere. Why is that?

(b)How does Rav Chanina bar Papa prove that it is wrong to recite them even in the Beis ha'Mikdash?

(c)And how does Rav Acha bar Chanina prove that one should even recite them outside the Beis-Hamikdash?

(d)Why did Rebbi Avahu initially teach that one should not recite any of the above Pesukim?

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Chiya bar Aba, the Tzibur only recite these Pesukim in the Beis-Hamikdash - in honor of Hash-m's four-letter Name, which was only pronounced there (but not elsewhere).

(b)Rav Chanina bar Papa proves that it is wrong to recite them even in the Beis ha'Mikdash - because an Eved is expected to pay attention whilst he is being blessed (and not to recite anything).

(c)Whereas Rav Acha bar Chanina proves that one should even recite them outside the Beis-Hamikdash - because when an Eved receives a blessing he is duty-bound to acknowledge it.

(d)Rebbi Avahu initially taught that one should not recite any of the above Pesukim - because he noticed that Rebbi Aba from Acco did not recite them (the word 'initially' is unclear however, since there is no indication that he retracted from this opinion).

3)

(a)What did the wife of Rebbi Avahu's Meturgeman tell Rebbi Avahu's wife?

(b)How did Rebbi Avahu respond to this when his wife told him about it?

(c)This led him to believe that he was humble, until he saw the humility of Rebbi Aba from Acco. What did Rebbi Aba from Acco do that caused Rebbi Avahu to change his mind?

(d)Why did Rebbi Avahu decline to accept the post of Rosh Yeshivah?

3)

(a)The wife of Rebbi Avahu's Meturgeman told Rebbi Avahu's wife - that her own husband was just as learned as Rebbi Avahu, and that he only bowed down to him because he was close to the royal family.

(b)When Rebbi Avahu's wife told him about it - he replied 'What's the difference to you? As long as Hash-m's Name is praised between the two of us'.

(c)This led him to believe that he was humble, until he saw the humility of Rebbi Aba from Acco - who did not protest when he taught his Meturgeman one reason for something and the Meturgeman conveyed his own reason to the people.

(d)Rebbi Avahu declined to accept the post of Rosh Yeshivah - because Rebbi Aba from Acco owed a lot of money, and he wanted him to get the position, in order to become wealthy (since it is obligatory to enrich a Rosh Yeshivah, so that his Talmidim will treat him with respect) and pay off his creditor.

4)

(a)What happened once when Rebbi Avahu and Rebbi Chiya bar Aba arrived at a certain place?

(b)What parable did Rebbi Avahu give (regarding two salesmen) to raise a depressed Rebbi Chiya bar Aba's spirits?

(c)What did he do in an additional attempt to pacify Rebbi Chiya bar Aba?

(d)Did he succeed fully?

4)

(a)When Rebbi Avahu and Rebbi Chiya bar Aba once arrived at a certain place - Rebbi Avahu Darshened Agadah, and Rebbi Chiya bar Aba, Halachah, and all the people came to listen to Rebbi Avahu.

(b)Attempting to raise a depressed Rebbi Chiya bar Aba's spirits - Rebbi Avahu compared the case to two salesmen who arrived in town. The one was selling precious stones, the other was peddling cheap goods, such as balls of wool and needles. To which one do you think all the customers came running. To the latter of course, because his goods were cheap!

(c)In an additional attempt to pacify Rebbi Chiya bar Aba - he accompanied him home at the end of the day, although it was Rebbi Chiya bar Aba who normally accompanied Rebbi Avahu, in honor of the king, with whom he was close (as we explained earlier).

(d)He did not fully succeed - because Rebbi Chiya bar Aba remained distressed.

5)

(a)Whilst the Shatz is saying 'Modim', there are a host of opinions as to what the Tzibur say. According to Rav, they say 'Modim Anachnu Lach, Hash-m Elokeinu ... ', Shmuel adds 'Elokei Chol Basar ... ', until Rav Acha bar Yakov, who adds 'Kein Techaneinu u'Sechaneinu ... '. What do all the opinions have in common?

(b)What is Rav Papa's final ruling?

5)

(a)Whilst the Shatz is saying 'Modim', there are a host of opinions as to what the Tzibur say. According to Rav, they say 'Modim Anachnu Lach, Hash-m Elokeinu ... ', Shmuel adds 'Elokei Chol Basar ... ', until Rav Acha bar Yakov, who adds 'Kein Techaneinu u'Sechaneinu ... '. What all the opinions have in common is - that they end with 'Al she'Anu Modim Lach' (See Tosfos DH 'Al').

(b)Rav Papa's final ruling is - that we incorporate them all.

6)

(a)What does Rebbi Yitzchak extrapolate from the obligation of the Kohanim to face the people, even though it means turning their backs to the Shechinah?

(b)How does Rav Nachman extrapolate the same thing from the Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim "va'Yakam ha'Melech David Al Raglav, va'Yomer Shim'uni Achai v'Ami"?

(c)The Rabanan thought to extrapolate the same from the Beraisa which forbids the Kohanim to wear shoes when going up to Duchen (one of the ten Takanos of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai). What might that have to do with Kavod Tzibur?

(d)Rav Ashi refutes their proof, however. What does he consider the real reason for the prohibition?

6)

(a)Rebbi Yitzchak extrapolates from the obligation of the Kohanim to face the people, even though it means turning their backs to the Shechinah - that one needs to have 'Eimas Tzibur' (awe of the community).

(b)Rav Nachman extrapolates the same thing from the Pasuk "va'Yakam ha'Melech David Al Raglav, va'Yomer Shim'uni Achai v'Ami". He interprets the strange phrase "Achai v'Ami" to mean that if Yisrael obey him, then he considers them his brothers, but if not, then they are his people, and he will rule them with a heavy hand. The fact that he first referred to them as "Achai" indicates the esteem in which he held them.

(c)The Rabanan thought to extrapolate the same from the Beraisa which forbids the Kohanim to wear shoes when going up to Duchen (one of the ten Takanos of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai). They ascribed the reason for this to the likelihood of the Kohen's clothes becoming slightly raised as he stretched out his hands to Duchen, revealing his muddy shoes.

(d)Rav Ashi refutes their proof, however. The real reason for the prohibition he explains is - because we are afraid that the Kohen's shoelace may break on his way up to Duchen, and in order to avoid being ridiculed for wearing untied shoes, he will descend from the Duchan to tie up his lace whilst the other Kohanim are Duchening. This will cause people to think that he is a ben Gerushah or a ben Chalutzah (See Hagahos R'dal).

40b----------------------------------------40b

7)

(a)Why did the Kohanim in the Beis-Hamikdash not pause between one Berachah and the next during the three Berachos of Birchas Kohanim?

(b)What does the Beraisa learn from the Pasuk in Nechemyah ...

1. ... "Kumu u'Varchu Es Hash-m Elokeichem min ha'Olam v'Ad ha'Olam"?

2. ... "vi'Yevarchu Shem Kevodecha u'Meromam Al Kol Berachah u'Sehilah"?

7)

(a)The Kohanim did not pause between one Berachah and the next during the three Berachos of Birchas Kohanim - because it was not customary to respond with 'Amen' in the Beis-Hamikdash, so it resembled one Berachah (they did however, respond with 'Baruch Shem ... ' after the mention of Hash-m's Name (see Tosfos DH 've'Kol Kach' and Tosfos Yom Tov).

(b)The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Kumu u'Varchu Es Hash-m Elokeichem min ha'Olam v'Ad ha'Olam" - that this was the text of each Berachah that they recited in the Mikdash (e.g. 'Barush Hash-m Elokei Yisrael min ha'Olam v'Ad ha'Olam, Magen Avraham').

2. ... "vi'Yevarchu Shem Kevodecha u'Meromam Al Kol Berachah u'Sehilah" - that the response to every Berachah (and to each mention of Hash-m's Name) was 'Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso l'Olam va'Ed' (and not 'Amen').

8)

(a)Before the Kohen Gadol Leined on Yom-Kippur, a small ceremony would take place. The Chazan ha'Keneses would take the Sefer-Torah (that Ezra had written) and hand it to the Rosh ha'Keneses. Who was the ...

1. ... Chazan ha'Keneses?

2. ... Rosh ha'Keneses?

(b)The Rosh ha'Keneses did not hand it directly to the Kohen Gadol. To whom did he hand it?

(c)Which two Parshiyos did the Kohen Gadol Lein?

(d)What did he then do with the Sefer-Torah?

8)

(a)Before the Kohen Gadol Leined on Yom-Kippur, a small ceremony would take place. The Chazan ha'Keneses would take the Sefer-Torah (that Ezra had written) and hand it to the Rosh ha'Keneses.

1. The Chazan ha'Keneses was - the Shammes, who saw to the needs of the Beis-Hamikdash, such as preparing the Sefer-Torah and placing a cloth on the Bimah ... .

2. The Rosh ha'Keneses - was the Gabai, who was in charge of the Aliyos to the Torah and of appointing the Shatz for Davening.

(b)The Rosh ha'Keneses did not hand the Sefer-Torah directly to the Kohen Gadol but - to the Segan (the deputy Kohen Gadol), who would hand it to the Kohen Gadol.

(c)The Kohen Gadol would Lein - the first Parshah of Acharei-Mos and that of Yom Kippur in Emor.

(d)Then he would roll the Sefer closed and place it in his bosom.

9)

(a)What announcement did the Kohen Gadol make before proceeding to Lein by heart?

(b)Why did he ...

1. ... do that?

2. ... Lein by heart?

(c)Which Parshah did he Lein by heart?

9)

(a)Before proceeding to Lein by heart, the Kohen Gadol would announce - that there was more written in the Sefer-Torah than what he had Leined.

(b)The reason that he ...

1. ... made this announcement was - to avoid suspicion that he was Leining the next section by heart, because the Sefer only contained what he had Leined, and was therefore Pasul.

2. ... Leined by heart was - because he would not have managed to finish scrolling from Emor to Pinchas before the Meturgeman had finished translating the last Pasuk, which would have constituted 'Tircha d'Tzibura'.

(c)The Parshah that he Leined by heart was - that of the Musaf of Yom Kippur in Pinchas.

10)

(a)How many Berachos did the Kohen Gadol recite after Leining?

(b)After the Berachah following Leining ('Asher Nasan Lanu Toras Emes ... '), he would recite the Berachah of Avodah and that of Hodayah (thanks). On what grounds was it necessary to include the latter?

(c)And he added a Berachah on the Mikdash and one on Yisrael. Which two Berachos did he finally recite?

10)

(a)The Kohen Gadol recited - eight Berachos after Leining.

(b)After the Berachah following Leining ('Asher Nasan Lanu Toras Emes ... '), he would recite the Berachah of Avodah and that of Hodayah (thanks). It was necessary to include the latter - because Hodayah always follows Avodah (like we find in the Amidah).

(c)And he added a Berachah on the Mikdash and one on Yisrael - concluding with a Berachah on the Kohanim and one on Yerushalayim.

11)

(a)Why is there no proof from the Tana of our Mishnah, who obligates the Chazan ha'Keneses to hand the Sefer-Torah to the Rosh ha'Keneses, who, in turn, hands it to the Segan (in the presence of the Kohen Gadol), that one shows deference to one's superior even in the presence of their common Rav?

11)

(a)There is no proof from the Tana of our Mishnah, who obligates the Chazan ha'Keneses to hand the Sefer-Torah to the Rosh ha'Keneses, who, in turn, hands it to the Segan (in the presence of the Kohen Gadol), that one shows deference to one's superior even in the presence of their common Rav - because in this case, the entire ceremony was meant to demonstrate the Kavod of the Kohen Gadol (to show how many dignified positions there were under his charge).

12)

(a)What is the problem with the Mishnah, which states 've'Kohen Gadol Omed u'Mekabel v'Korei', implying that he had been sitting?

(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Shmuel "va'Yavo ha'Melech David v'Yeshev Lifnei Hash-m"?

(c)What was the reason for this preferential treatment?

12)

(a)The problem with the Mishnah, which states 've'Kohen Gadol Omed u'Mekabel v'Korei', implying that he had been sitting is - that no-one with the sole exception of the King of Yehudah, was permitted to sit in the Chatzer of the Beis-Hamikdash ...

(b)... which we learn from the Pasuk "va'Yavo ha'Melech David v'Yeshev Lifnei Hash-m".

(c)The reason for this preferential treatment was - to demonstrate that their sovereignty was complete ([and permanent] as opposed to that of the kings of Yisrael, which was only temporary).

13)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the Kohen Gadol Leined in the Azarah. What does Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov learn from the Pasuk in Nechemyah "va'Yikra Bo Lifnei ha'Rechov Asher Lifnei Sha'ar ha'Mayim"?

(b)How does Rav Chisda interpret 'the Azarah' of the Tana Kama (also answering our previous Kashya [with regard to the Kohen Gadol sitting in the Azarah])?

13)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the Kohen Gadol Leined in the Azarah. Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov learns from the Pasuk "va'Yikra bo Lifnei ha'Rechov Asher Lifnei Sha'ar ha'Mayim" - that he Leined in the Har ha'Bayis.

(b)Rav Chisda interprets the Azarah of the Tana Kama - as the Ezras Nashim (which was merely an extension of the Har ha'Bayis, as we learned above), thereby answering our previous Kashya (with regard to Kohen Gadol sitting in the Azarah) at the same time.

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