(R. Elazar): Any Tzibur that includes flatterers is despised like a Nidah - "a Tzibur of flattery is Galmud";
A Nidah is called Galmud, since she is Gemulah (weaned, i.e. separated) from her husband.
(R. Elazar): Any Tzibur that includes flatterers is eventually exiled.
It is called Galmud, and it says "bereaved, Galmudah, exiled."
(R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): Four categories do not receive the Divine Presence: scoffers; flatterers; liars; and those who speak Lashon ha'Ra.
WHAT WE TELL THE SOLDIERS
(Mishnah): The Kohen anointed for war (to speak to the army) speaks to them in Hebrew - "he will speak to the nation", in Hebrew.
"He says to them 'Shema, Yisrael... (you are fighting) your enemies, not your brothers."
This is not like a fight between (the tribes of) Yehudah and Shimon, or Shimon against Binyamin - when fighting your brothers, the captors have mercy on the captives.
(When Yisrael took captives from Yehudah,) "the unclothed among the captives, they clothed, gave them shoes, to eat and drink, anointed them, and put those unable to walk on donkeys."
You are fighting your enemies. If you fall into their hands, they will not have mercy on you.
"Do not soften your hearts, do not fear or panic..."
"Do not soften your hearts" due to the neighing of the horses and brandishing swords;
"Do not fear" the clanging of the shields and the swarm of soldiers;
"Do not panic" from the sounding of the horns;
"Do not be terrified" from the shouting, "for Hash-m goes with you."
They come with the strength of flesh and blood. You come with the potency of Hash-m.
The Pelishtim relied on Golyas. He fell by the sword, and they fell with him;
Amon relied on Shovach (their general). He fell by the sword, and they fell with him.
You are not like them. "Hash-m comes with you to fight for you" refers to the Aron.
(Gemara) Question: How does the verse show that he speaks in Hebrew?
Answer: It says here "he speaks", like it says regarding Matan Torah "Moshe would speak, and Hash-m would answer him aloud";
Just like that was in Hebrew, also here.
(Beraisa) Suggestion: "The Kohen will draw close and speak to the nation" - perhaps any Kohen may speak!
Rejection: "The Shotrim (enforcers) will speak." Just like the Shotrim are appointed, also the Kohen.
Suggestion: Perhaps the Kohen Gadol speaks!
Rejection: He must be like the Shotrim, who have someone above them.
Question: The Kohen Gadol also has someone above him, i.e. the king!
Answer: We mean, he must have someone above him in his service.
Suggestion: Perhaps the Sgan speaks!
Rejection: The Sgan is not appointed over anything.
(Beraisa - R. Chanina): The Sgan is picked, so if the Kohen Gadol cannot serve, the Sgan will serve in his stead.
(Mishnah): "He tells them Shema, Yisrael."
Question: Why are these words used?
Answer (R. Yochanan): Hash-m tells us that even if our only Mitzvah was saying Shema Yisrael morning and evening, we would not be handed over to our enemies.
(Mishnah): "Do not soften your hearts, do not fear..."
(Beraisa): He speaks twice with them, once at the border (when leaving Eretz Yisrael), and once at the battlefront;
At the border, he instructs which people should return home (those who just built houses...)
At the battlefront, he says "do not soften your hearts, do not fear, panic or be terrified", corresponding to four things the enemy does to instill fear- they clang shields, blow trumpets, shout, and make their horses neigh.
THE ENCOUNTER WITH GOLYAS
(Mishnah): The Philistines relied on Golyas...
(R. Yochanan): He is called so, for he stood b'GiLuy Panim (brazenly) in front of Hash-m. He said "pick for yourselves an Ish, and he will come down to me."
"Ish" refers to Hash-m - "Hash-m Ish Milchamah."
Therefore, Hash-m arranged that he fall to (someone called) the son of an Ish - "David Ben Ish Efrati."
(R. Yochanan): In three places, Golyas's words suggested his own downfall: "pick for yourselves a man, that he will come down to (overcome) me"; "if he can fight with me, and he will strike me"; and "am I a dog, that you come at me with sticks?!"
Question: Also David said "you come at me with a sword, spear and javelin"!
Answer: David concluded "I come at you with the name of Hash-m."
(R. Yochanan): "He (Golyas) drew close every morning and evening" to prevent them from saying Shema Yisrael.
(R. Yochanan): "He stood for 40 days", corresponding to the 40 days in which the Torah was given.
Question: "A man of the Benayim came out of the Pelishtim camp" - what is this?
Answer #1 (Rav): He was MeVuNeh (robust, well-proportioned), devoid of all blemish.
Answer #2 (Shmuel): He was BeiNoni (medium) among his brothers (they are mentioned below).
Answer #3 (d'Vei R. Shilo): His stature was like a BiNYan (building).
Answer #4 (R. Yochanan): He was conceived among (BeiN) 100 men and a dog (who had Bi'ah with his mother in one night).
(Rav Yosef): "His name was Golyas, of Gas" - all threshed his mother, like a Gas (winery).
(Rav Yosef): The word Ma'arachos (ranks) is written deficiently, like Ma'aros, to teach that everyone had Ha'ara'ah (the first stage of Bi'ah) with his mother.
Question: In one place, his mother is called Harafah. Elsewhere, she is called Orpah!
Answer #1 (Rav or Shmuel): Her real name is Harafah. She is called Orpah because all had Bi'ah with her from the Oref (back).
Answer #2 (the other of Rav and Shmuel): Her real name is Orpah. She is called Harafah because all threshed her, like ha'Rifos (crushed wheat).
Question: "These four were born to Harafah in Gas, and fell to David and his servants." Who are the four?
Answer (Rav Chisda): They are Saf, Medon, Golyas, and Yishbi.
(R. Yitzchak): "Orpah kissed her mother-in-law (No'omi, and deserted her), and Rus clung to her." Hash-m arranged that the sons of the one who kissed fall to the sons of the one who clung.
(Rava): In the merit of four tears that Orpah shed for her mother-in-law, she merited to bear four mighty men - "they (Rus and Orpah) raised their voices and cried more." (Rashi - it says that she cried twice. Presumably, each time a tear came from each eye.)
Question: We read "the Etz (wood) of his spear", but it is written Chetz (arrow)!
(R. Elazar): This shows that the verses do not even relate Chetzi (half) of his might.
This teaches that one should not relate the full praise of a Rasha.
Question: If so, the verse should not relate any of his praise!
Answer: It relates half his might, to praise David (that he did not fear to fight him).
(Mishnah): Bnei Amon relied on Shovach...
Question: He is called Shovach, and elsewhere he is called Shofech!
Answer #1 (Rav or Shmuel): His name is Shofech. He is called Shovach because he was (tall) like a Shovech (dovecote).
Answer #2 (The other of Rav and Shmuel): His name is Shovach. He is called Shofech because anyone who sees him is Nishpach (spilled) in front of him like a flask.
(Rav or Shmuel): "Ashpaso (his quiver) is like an open grave, they (Nevuchadnetzar's soldiers) are all mighty" - when they throw an arrow, they make Ashpasos (heaps) of corpses;
Suggestion: Perhaps this is because they are skilled archers (but are not so mighty).
Rejection: "They are all mighty."
(The other of Rav and Shmuel): When they defecate, they make Ashpasos (wasteheaps) of excrement (i.e. they eat greatly).
Suggestion: Perhaps this is due to intestinal sickness!
Rejection: "They are all mighty."
(Rav Mari): We learn that a large amount of excrement is a result of intestinal sickness.
Question: What practical application does this have?
Answer: Such a person should seek a cure.
(R. Ami or R. Asi): "Worry in the heart, a person Yashchenah (Ralbag - he should suppress it; Malbim - it lowers him) " - he should divert it (Yasichenah) from his mind.
(The other of R. Ami and R. Asi): He should speak about it (Yasichenah) with others.