SOTAH 26-28 - A week of study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov (Irving) ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[27a - 33 lines; 27b - 50 lines]

1)[line 1]דומהDUMAH- a woman who is the subject of the gossip of her town (with regard to her alleged illicit relations)

2)[line 6]ותסברא? נושא לכתחלה?V'SISBERA?! NOSEI LECHATCHILAH?!- Do you really think so?! Can he marry her in the first place?!

3)[line 12]אין אשה מתעברת אלא סמוך לווסתהEIN ISHAH MIS'ABERES ELA SAMUCH L'VESTAH- a woman only becomes pregnant from relations that take place one day before she menstruates

4)[line 12]לווסתהL'VESTAH (VESES)

(a)A woman's Veses is the fixed monthly cycle when she usually menstruates. Every time a woman gets her period, she must consider that she may get her next period on the same date in the next month. On that day she is prohibited to her husband, whether she saw blood one or two times on that calendar date (Veses she'Eino Kavu'a) or three times in a row (Veses Kavu'a).

(b)The Gemara (Nidah 63b and elsewhere, see Chart there) lists various types of Vestos:

1.VESES HA'GUF - Bleeding that occurs along with sneezing, body-aches, etc. (Mishnah Nidah 63a)

2.VESES B'ONES (Circumstantial Veses), when the Ones does not directly cause the onset of the Veses (see TOSFOS to Nidah 63b DH Achlah) - Bleeding that occurs after eating garlic, onions or peppercorns (Gemara Nidah 63b)

3.VESES B'ONES, when the Ones directly causes the onset of the Veses (ibid.) - Bleeding that occurs after jumping or other physical activities (Nidah 11a). (The Halachic ruling is that such a Veses must be coupled with another factor, such as the day of the week or month on which the Veses occurred, in order to establish a Veses (YD 189:17).

4.VESES HAFLAGAH (Intervals) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 20th of Nisan, 9th of Iyar and 28th of Iyar. Each of the three intervals is 20 days. (Note that blood must be seen 4 times to create this Veses.) (A Veses Haflagah occurs after a certain interval of days. However according to the understanding of at least one Acharon (Chidushei Hafla'ah beg. of YD 189), such a Veses can be established based on an interval of a set number of hours as well, such as a woman who sees blood every 600 hours.)

5.VESES HA'CHODESH (Calendar date) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 1st of Iyar and 1st of Sivan (Note that the intervals are not similar.)

6.VESES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK - e.g. seeing blood on Sunday, three weeks later on Sunday and three weeks later on Sunday. The day of the week fixes the Veses and therefore three times suffice to create a Veses (RAMBAN 64a citing TOSFOS).

(c)Each of the above Vestos can be expressed in a number of ways (a "sub-Veses"):

1.L'DILUGIN (Incremental) - Where the Haflagah, calendar date or day of the week increases incrementally, e.g. Haflagos of 11, 12 and 13 days.

2.L'SEIRUGIN (Alternating) - Where the Veses occurs every other time, e.g. every second Rosh Chodesh

3.L'SHA'AH KEVU'AH - Where the Veses occurs at a certain time of day, e.g. eating garlic at sunrise (BEIS YOSEF, beg. of YD 189, citing the RA'AVAD in BA'ALEI HA'NEFESH)

4.TZIRUF (Combination) - A Veses that is established by a combination of two factors (such as was described above, b3)

(d)There are two differences between a Veses Kavu'a and a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a:

1.When a woman has a Veses Kavu'a, she is not Metamei me'Es l'Es (i.e. she does not become Teme'ah retroactively for 24 hours), whereas if she has a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a, some Tana'im rule that she is Teme'ah retroactively me'Es l'Es.

2.According to the opinion that "Vestos are mid'Oraisa" (Nidah 16a), when a woman has a Veses Kavu'a and she did not do an internal examination on that date, but rather afterwards, even if she found no blood, she is nevertheless Teme'ah.

5)[line 14]ולא מנטר להV'LO MANTAR LAH- and he does not watch her

6)[line 30]סומאSUMA- a blind person

7a)[last line]שחיגרתCHIGERES- a lame woman

b)[last line]וגידמתGIDEMES- a woman whose hands are cut off


8)[line 3]שאילמתILEMES- a woman who cannot speak


9)[line 13]בו ביוםBO VA'YOM- on that day [that the Chachamim appointed Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah to be the Nasi in place of Raban Gamliel, as explained in Berachos 28a]. Raban Gamliel's policy was to limit entrance to the Beis ha'Midrash only to a scholar who was "Tocho k'Varo," i.e. whose inside was known to match his outside (as a result of which many great Talmidei Chachamim were refused entry). When Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah became the Nasi, he removed the guard from the Beis ha'Midrash, with the dramatic result that so many Talmidim poured in, that four hundred (others say, seven hundred) benches were added. In his opinion, anyone who wished to learn should be entitled to enter. Due to the sudden influx of Talmidim who had previously been barred from entering the Beis ha'Midrash by Raban Gamliel, many issues that had remained obscure were now discussed. Maseches Eduyos was composed on that day. The Talmidei Chachamim all "testified" ("Edus" — "testimony") what they had received from their teachers. So powerful was the Divine inspiration that ensued that the entire Maseches is Halachah. Raban Gamliel (in order to prove irrefutably that his actions were l'Shem Shamayim and not, as it may appear, out of arrogance), continued to appear daily in the Beis ha'Midrash, not missing as much as one single day, in spite of his having been deposed!

10)[line 14]"[וכל כלי] חרש אשר יפל מהם אל תוכו; כל אשר בתוכו יטמא [ואתו תשברו]""(U'CHLI) [V'CHOL KLI] CHERES ASHER YIPOL MEHEM EL TOCHO; KOL ASHER B'SOCHO YITMA, [V'OSO SISHBORU]"- "And any earthenware utensil into which they (Sheratzim) will fall; everything [that is a food or drink] that is inside it shall become Tamei, and you shall break that utensil." (Vayikra 11:33)

11)[line 17]שני/שלישיSHENI / SHELISHI (TUM'AH: The Different Levels of Tum'ah)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).

(h)In our Mishnah, however, Rebbi Akiva does bring a source from the Torah that a Sheni l'Tum'ah can make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa as a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. The Halachah follows the former opinion (see above, d).

12)[line 24]"ומדתם מחוץ לעיר את פאת קדמה אלפים באמה [ואת פאת נגב אלפים באמה ואת פאת ים אלפים באמה ואת פאת צפון אלפים באמה, והעיר בתוך; זה יהיה להם מגרשי הערים]""U'MADOSEM MI'CHUTZ LA'IR ES PE'AS KEDMAH ALPAYIM BA'AMAH [V'ES PE'AS NEGEV ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS YAM ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS TZAFON ALPAYIM BA'AMAH, V'HA'IR BA'TAVECH; ZEH YIHEYEH LAHEM MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM]"- "And you shall measure outside the city on the eastern side 2000 Amos, [and on the southern side 2000 Amos, and on the western side 2000 Amos, and on the northern side 2000 Amos, with the city in the center; this shall constitute the city's open areas.]" (Bamidbar 35:5)

13)[line 25]"[ומגרשי הערים אשר תתנו ללוים] מקיר העיר וחוצה אלף אמה סביב""[U'MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM ASHER TITNU LA'LEVIYIM] MI'KIR HA'IR VA'CHUTZAH ELEF AMAH SAVIV"- "[The open areas that you shall give the Leviyim] shall extend outwards 1000 Amos from the city wall all around." (Bamidbar 35:4)

14)[line 29]מגרשMIGRASH- the open spaces outside of the cities of the Leviyim which extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city

15)[line 30]תחום השבתTECHUM SHABBOS

(a)A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

(c)The Tana'im of our Mishnah argue as to whether Techumin are mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. The Halachah follows the opinion that they are mid'Rabanan (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 27:1).

16)[line 42]"הן יקטלני לו אייחל""HEN YIKTELENI, LO AYACHEL..."- "Even if He would kill me, I would place my trust in Him..." (Iyov 13:15) - It is also possible to translate this phrase as, "But if He will kill me, I will no longer place my trust in Him."

17)[line 42]ועדיין הדבר שקולV'ADAYIN HA'DAVAR SHAKUL- and the matter (according to this verse) is still unresolved (lit. balances equally) [if he served the Creator out of love or fear]

18)[line 43]"... עד אגוע לא אסיר תומתי ממני""... AD EGVA LO ASIR TUMASI MIMENI"- "... until I die I will not agree with you in saying that I was not perfect [in serving HaSh-m]." (Iyov 27:5)