THE LAW OF A THRESHOLD (Yerushalmi Perek 1 Halachah 1 Daf 5b)

וא"ר יוסה איסקופה שאמרו רחבה ארבעה ואינה גבוה עשרה. אין תימר גבוה עשרה ורחבה ארבעה רשות בפני עצמו הוא.


(R. Yosah): The threshold discussed [in the Beraisa above] is four [by four Tefachim] wide and it is not 10 tall. If you would say that it is 10 tall and four wide, it is a Reshus [ha'Yachid] by itself!

אין תימר גבוהה עשרה ואינה רחבה ד'. הדא דמר רב חסדא בשם אסי קנה נעוץ בר"ה גבוהה עשרה טפחים מותר לכאן ולכאן. ובלבד שלא יחליף.


If you would say that it is 10 tall and not four wide, it would be like Rav Chisda said in the name of Asi, that if a stick was inserted in Reshus ha'Rabim and it is 10 [Tefachim] tall, one may transfer from it to here and here (Reshus ha'Rabim or from Reshus ha'Rabim, for it is Mekom Petur), as long as he does not transfer [from Reshus ha'Yachid to Reshus ha'Rabim via the stick].

אלא כן אנן קיימין (בשאינה לא רחבה) [צ"ל ברחבה - קרבן העדה] [דף ו עמוד א] ארבעה ולא גבוהה עשרה.


Conclusion: Rather, we discuss when it is four wide and not 10 tall.

איסקופה שלפני הפתח אחרים אומרים כל זמן שהפתח פתוח כולה כלפנים. נעול כולה כלחוץ.


A threshold in front of the opening [of the house] - others say, as long as the door is open, all of it (the threshold) is like inside [the house, Reshus ha'Yachid]. When the door is closed, all of it is like outside (Reshus ha'Rabim).

מה אנן קיימין אם במקורה. אפי' נעול כולה כלפנים. אם בשאינו מקורה. אפי' פתוח כולה כלחוץ.


Question: What is the case? If [the threshold] is covered, even if [the door] is closed, all of it is like inside! (The outer edge of the covering is considered to descend and make a fourth wall, due to Pi Tikra Yored v'Sosem.) If it is not covered, even if [the door] is open, all of it is like outside! (Rabanan forbid carrying when one side is totally open.)

אלא כן אנן קיימין בשחצייה מקורה וחצייה אינה מקורה.


Answer: The case is, half is covered and half is not covered. (When the door is closed, Pi Tikra Yored v'Sosem does not apply, for there is no Mechitzah for an area less than four by four. When it is open, Pi Tikra Yored v'Sosem applies and permits the covered part. Since part is permitted, all is permitted.)

מהו נעול כולה כלחוץ מותר להשתמש מתוכה לחוץ ומן החוץ לתוכה.


Question: What does it mean "when it is closed, all of it is like outside"? May one transfer from it to outside (Reshus ha'Rabim), and from outside to it?! (Surely one may not. The threshold has three walls. Mid'Oraisa it is Reshus ha'Yachid!)

(כשהוא) [צ"ל כשהיה - קרבן העדה] בפתח חור אסור להשתמש מתוכה לחור ומן החור לתוכה.


Answer: (It is like outside, i.e. one may not transfer between it and inside. How is this relevant when the door is closed?) The case is, there was a hole in the door. (One may not transfer from the threshold to the hole, or from the hole to it.)

ר' נתן אומר נעול כולה כלחוץ. פתוח חצייה כלפנים וחצייה כלחוץ.


R. Nasan says, if [the door] is closed, all of [the threshold] is like outside. If it is open, half is like inside, and half is like outside. (He does not say "since part is permitted, all is permitted.")

ולא כן סברינן מימר איסקופה ד'


Question: Do we not say that a threshold must be four [by four to be a Karmelis? Less than this is Mekom Petur. When the door is closed, why does he consider half like outside, to forbid transferring from it to inside? It is less than four!]

מאחר שינעל הפתח כולה כלחוץ. אף כשהפתח פתוח חצייה כלפנים וחצייה כלחוץ:


Answer: Since when he closes the door, all is like outside, even when the door is open, half is like inside, and half is like outside. (We do not say that the outer half is Batel. We explained this like HA'GAON RAV C. KANIEVSKY, SHLITA.)


MATTERS FORBIDDEN BEFORE MINCHAH (Yerushalmi Perek 1 Halachah 2 Daf 6a)

מתני' לא ישב אדם לפני הספר סמוך למנחה עד שיתפלל לא יכנס לא למרחץ ולא לבורסקי לא לאכול ולא לדין


(Mishnah): One may not sit in front of a barber (begin a haircut) close to [the time of] Minchah, until he prays, nor enter a bathhouse or a tannery, or begin to eat or to judge.

אם התחילו אין מפסיקין ומפסיקין לק"ש ואין מפסיקין לתפלה:


If one began [one of these], he need not interrupt. One interrupts to say Shma, but not for prayer.

גמ' אנן תנינן סמוך למנחה. תני ר' חייא סמוך לחשיכה.


(Gemara) Question: Our Mishnah says "close to Minchah." R. Chiya taught "close to dark"!

מתניתין צריכה למתניתי' דרבי חייא מתני' דר' חייא צריכה למתניתין.


Answer #1: Our Mishnah needs also R. Chiya's teaching, and R. Chiya's teaching needs also our Mishnah;

אילו תנא רבי חייא ולא תנינן אנן הוינן אמרין לא [צ"ל אמרו - שערי תורת ארץ ישראל] אלא חשיכה הא מנחה לא הוי צורכה למתניתין


If R. Chiya's teaching was taught, but not our Mishnah, we would have said that they said only [close to] dark, but not [close to] Minchah. Therefore, we need our Mishnah;

או אילו (תנא ר' חייא ולא תנינן אנן) [צ"ל תנינן אנן ולא תנא ר' חייא - קרבן העדה] הוינן אמרין כולהן דתנינן מנחה מנחה. וכולהן דתנינן חשיכה חשיכה.


If our Mishnah was taught, but not R. Chiya's teaching, we would have said that all the Mishnayos that say [close to] Minchah, [we forbid close to] Minchah, and all the Mishnayos that say [close to] dark, [we forbid only close to] dark;

מן מה דתניתה מנחה ותניתה רבי חייא רובה חשיכה הדא אמרה אפילו חשיכה דתנינן (דבתרה - ספר העיתים סימן ד' מוחקו) מנחה היא.


From this that our Mishnah taught Minchah, and R. Chiya Rabah taught dark, this shows that even when [the Mishnah] teaches dark, it means Minchah.

[דף ו עמוד ב] רבי חנניה בן אחוי דרב הושעיה אמר מתניתין בעמי הארץ. מן מה דתני ר' חייא בחבירין.


Answer #2 (R. Chaninah the nephew of R. Hoshayah): Our Mishnah discusses an Am ha'Aretz. R. Chiya's teaching discusses a Chaver (we need not be so stringent for a Chaver).

רבנן דקיסרין אמרין מתניתי' כר' יהודה מן מה דתני ר' חייא כרבנן:


Answer #3 (Rabanan of Kisarin): (All forbid until the latest time for Minchah.) Our Mishnah is like R. Yehudah [who permit Minchah is until Plag ha'Minchah]. R. Chiya's teaching is like Rabanan [who permit Minchah until dark].

לפני הספר סמוך למנחה עד שיתפלל ולא יכנס למרחץ.


(Mishnah): [One may not sit] in front of a barber close to Minchah until he prays, nor enter a bathhouse.

התחלת הספר אי זו היא. משיתחיל לגלח.


What is the beginning of a haircut? It is from when he begins to shave [his head].

והתני ישב לו לגלח באו ואמרו לו מת אביו הרי זה משלים את ראשו אחד המגלח ואחד המתגלח.


Question (Beraisa): If one sat to shave, and they came and told him that his father died, he finishes his head (for it is disgraceful if only part of his head is shaved). This applies both to the barber (if he heard that his father died, even though an Avel may not work) and to the one who is shaved.

לא אתיא [צ"ל אלא - הגר"ח קניבסקי שליט"א] משיתעטף בלונטית.


Answer (Correction): Rather, [the beginning of a haircut] is from when he covers himself with the cloth [put on one who is shaved to keep his clothes clean].

התחלת המרחץ אי זו היא.


Question: What is the beginning of [entering] a bathhouse?

ר' זריקן בשם ר' חנינא אמר משיתיר חגורו.


Answer #1 (R. Zerikan citing R. Chaninah): It is from when he unties his belt.

רב אמר משיתיר מנעלו.


Answer #2 (Rav): It is from when he unties his shoe.

כהדא רבי יהושע בן לוי הוה יליף שמע פרשתא מן בר בריה בכל ערובת שובא. חד זמן אינשי ועאל מיסחי בההן דימוסין דטובריא. והוה מסתמיך על כתפתי' דרבי חייא בר בא אינהר דלא שמע פרשתיה מן בר בריה וחזר ונפק ליה.


This is like R. Yehoshua ben Levi, who used to hear a Parshah from his grandson every Erev Shabbos. Once, he forgot and entered one of the bathhouses in Tiverya. He was leaning on the shoulder of R. Chiya bar Ba, and remembered that he did not hear a Parshah from his grandson. He went back and left.

מה הוה


Question: What was [his situation when he left]?

ר' דרוסי אמר כך הוה.


Answer #1 (R. Drusi): It was like [he entered. He had not removed anything.]

ר' לעזר בי רבי יוסי אומר שליח מנוי הוה.


Answer #2 (R. Eliezer bei R. Yosi): He had [already] removed his clothes.

א"ל ר' חייה בר אבא ולא כן אלפן רבי אם התחילו אין מפסיקין.


Question (R. Chiya bar Aba, to R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Rebbi did not teach like this [in our Mishnah! Rather,] if they began, they do not interrupt! (TOV YERUSHALAYIM - below, Chizkiyah said that anyone who is exempt, and he fulfills, he is called a commoner.)

א"ל חייא בני קלה היא בעיניך שכל השומע פרשה מן בן בנו כאלו הוא שומעה מהר סיני.


Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Chiya my son (i.e. Talmid), is it light in your eyes that anyone who hears a Parshah from his grandson, it is as if he heard it from Har Sinai?!

ומה טעמא. [דברים ד ט י] והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך. יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב.


What is the source of this? "V'Hodatam l'Vanecha v'Livnei Vanecha Yom Asher Amadta Lifnei Hash-m Elokecha b'Chorev."

רבי חזקיה ר' ירמיה ר' חייא בשם רבי יוחנן אם יכול את לשלשל את השמועה עד משה שלשלה. ואם לאו תפוש או ראשון ראשון או אחרון אחרון.


(R. Chizkiyah citing R. Yirmeyah citing R. Chiya citing R. Yochanan): If you can trace a teaching until Moshe (name all the Chachamim in the chain of the tradition), trace it. If not, mention only the first or last.


Note: Why did R. Chizkiyah mention all three Chachamim in the chain, unlike this very teaching?! Perhaps he means that if you cannot trace it until Moshe, it suffices to mention only the first or last, but one may mention more. The Bavli (Nazir 56b) holds that one must mention the first and last, and it is optional to mention more (even if he could trace it until Moshe.) Or, perhaps R. Chizkiyah did not cite all of them; the Gemara records that also R. Yirmeyah and/or R. Chiya said this teaching, in the name of R. Yochanan. (Yalkut ha'Makiri on Mishlei 22:24 brings a related teaching from "Chizkiyah and R. Yirmeyah and R. Chiya bar Aba citing R. Yochanan" (although we find that each was the Talmid of the Chacham mentioned after him).

מה טעמא והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך. יום אשר עמדת עד יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב.


What is the source [of the first half]? "V'Hodatam l'Vanecha v'Livnei Vanecha Yom Asher Amadta" - [if possible, trace it] until the day that you stood in front of Hash-m Elokecha on Sinai.

גידול אמר כל האומר שמועה מפי אומרה יהא רואה בעל השמועה כאלו הוא עומד כנגדו.


(Gidul): Anyone who says a teaching in the name of the author, he should picture as if the author of the teaching stands in front of him.

ומה טעמא [תהילים לט ז] אך בצלם יתהלך איש.


What is the source? "Ach b'Tzelem Yis'halech Ish" (one should go with the image of his Rebbi in front of him. We explained this like HA'GAON RAV C. KANIEVSKY, SHLITA.)

כתיב [משלי כ ו] רב אדם יקרא איש חסדו ואיש אמונים מי ימצא. רב אדם יקרא איש חסדו זה שאר כל אדם. ואיש אמונים מי ימצא זה רבי זעירא.


It says "Rav Adam Yikra Ish Chasdo v'Ish Emunim Mi Yimtza." "Rav Adam Yikra Ish Chasdo" refers to other people (they are not so meticulous that teachings were reported accurately). "V'Ish Emunim Mi Yimtza" refers to R. Ze'ira;

דמר רבי זעירא לית אנן צריכין חששין לשמועתיה דרב ששת דהוא גברא מפתחה.


R. Ze'ira said "we need not be concerned for teachings of Rav Sheshes, for he is a man [whose heart] is open" (surely he did not err. R. Ze'ira had faith in his Rebbi, Rav Sheshes - R. SHLOMO SIRILIYO, Shekalim 2:5.)


Note: We find that R. Zeira was Rav Sheshes' Talmid (Chulin 121b). In the Yerushalmi he is usually called R. Ze'ira with an Ayin in his name, but they are the same (Bava Kama 4:1; we find that R. Ze'ira was initially from Bavel (below, 5:4), and R. Yirmeyah was his Talmid...) Alternatively, R. Ze'ira is called Ish Emunim, for he was concerned about Stam Amora'im, lest they erred - PF.

אמר רבי זעירא לרבי יסא חכים רבי לבר פדיה דאת אמר שמועתא מן שמיה. א"ל ר' יוחנן אמרן משמו.


R. Ze'ira (to R. Yosa): Rebbi, do you know Bar Padyah, that you say a teaching in his name? (Perhaps you heard others cite him mistakenly!) R. Yosah answered, R. Yochanan said it in his name. (I rely on R. Yochanan.)

אמר רבי זעירא לרבי בא בר זבדא חכים רבי לרב דאת אמר שמועתא מן שמי'. א"ל רב אדא בר אהבה אמרן משמו:


R. Ze'ira (to R. Ba bar Zavda): Rebbi, do you know Rav, that you say a teaching in his name? R. Ba answered, Rav Ada bar Ahavah said it in his name.

ולא לבורסקי.


(Mishnah): [One may] not [enter] a tannery [close to Minchah, before he prays. If one began, he must interrupt to say Shma.]

[צ"ל איזו היא התחלת לבורסקי משיתחיל במלאכתו - שערי תורת ארץ ישראל]


What is the beginning of tanning? It is from when he begins his work.

איתא חמי בדילין ממי שריחו רע. ואת אמר הכין.


Question: How can you say so? We separate from someone with a bad smell [before saying Divrei Kedushah], and you say [that he interrupts to say Shma?! They used to use excrement to tan, and tanners absorbed the stench.]

[דף ז עמוד א] לא אתיא אלא משיתלבש בגדי אומנותו:


Answer (and Correction): Rather, it is from when he only wore the clothes of his trade [before he begins his work].


Note: Surely, his work clothes have a foul odor! We must say that he changes clothes, or he had purified them from their stench, e.g. through fumigation or incense...