WAYS OF CARING FOR AND WEARING CLOTHING ON SHABBOS
(Rav Huna): If one shook out [Rashi - the dirt from; Tosfos - dew from] his Talis on Shabbos, he is Chayav Chatas [for laundering].
This is only if it is new - if it is old, it is permitted;
[Even if it is new,] this is only if it is black - if it is white or red, it is permitted;
[Even if it is black,] this is only if he is insistent [not to wear it without shaking it out] - if he is not insistent, it is permitted.
Ula came to Pumbadisa and saw Rabanan shaking out their garments - he said, 'They are Mechalel Shabbos!'
Rav Yehudah: You may shake out right in front of him - we are not insistent.
Rav Yosef asked [his Talmid] Abaye to bring his hat; Abaye saw dew on it, and was hesitant.
Rav Yosef: Shake it out - we are not insistent!
(R. Yitzchak bar Yosef): If one walks in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos with his garment folded onto his shoulder (this is not the way to wear it, it is a load), he is Chayav Chatas.
Support (Beraisa): If a clothes salesman walks in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos with a garment folded onto his shoulder, he is Chayav Chatas;
The same applies to anyone, just clothes salesmen normally go like this.
If a grocer walks in Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos with money in his cloak, he is Chayav Chatas;
The same applies to anyone, just grocers normally go like this.
Couriers (Aruch; Rashi - people of a certain place) may go out with turbans folded on their shoulders;
The same applies to anyone, just it is normal for these people to go like this.
R. Yehudah: A case occurred, Hurkenus the son of R. Eliezer went out with a turban folded on his shoulder - a thread from it was wrapped on his finger [to ensure that it not fall];
Chachamim said, it is permitted even without a thread wrapped on his finger.
(Rav Nachman bar Rav Chisda): The Halachah is, it is permitted even without a thread wrapped on his finger.
Question (Bei Rav Asi bar Hini): May one make Marzev on Shabbos (this will be explained)?
Answer (Ula): R. Ilai forbids.
Question: What is Marzev?
Answer (R. Zeira): People of Bavel make folds (Rashi - and support them with threads) in garments that are too long. (It is forbidden, for it is like fixing the garment.)
R. Yirmiyah demonstrated and asked about different ways of doing this; R. Zeira forbade all of them.
(Rav Papa): The general rule is - if it is meant to stay folded permanently, it is forbidden;
If it is temporary, it is permitted, like Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi straightens out his cloak [on a weekday].
(Rav Dimi): Once, Rebbi entered a field, the two sides of his Talis were on his shoulders;
Yehoshua ben Ziruz (the brother-in-law of R. Meir): R. Meir was Mechayev Chatas for this (it is like a load)!
Rebbi: Is he Mechayev for this? (Only the sides are on the shoulders, the rest hangs down!)
Rebbi lowered his Talis (he accepted Yehoshua's words).
(Ravin): No, Yehoshua ben Kefusai, the son-in-law of R. Akiva told Rebbi that R. Akiva is Mechayev Chatas for this; Rebbi was surprised, but accepted his words.
Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehudah: Rebbi was not wearing a Talis this way - rather, he was asked, and was about to permit until he heard that R. Meir or R. Akiva is Mechayev.
LAWS RELATED TO BATHING ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If one bathed in a cave or in the springs of Tiverya and wiped himself, even if he used 10 towels, he may not take them [with him, even if there is an Eiruv, lest he squeeze them];
However, even 10 people may use the same towel to wipe their hands, feet and face (or even their whole bodies, just this is uncommon, for it would be too wet), and take the towel.
We may anoint and massage [for pleasure], but one may not rub hard or scratch himself with Magredes (a comb used for horses, for this is a weekday act).
One may not descend to Kordima (a certain river) or make Afiktizin [to make himself vomit];
One may not straighten limbs or vertebrae of a baby, or reset a broken bone;
If the hand or leg bone was dislocated, he may not shake (alternatively - rub, or shower) it in water, but he may wash normally; if it heals, this is no problem.
(Gemara): The Mishnah discusses a cave and springs of Tiverya to equate them - just like the springs are hot, also the cave water;
'If one bathed' connotes b'Diavad - but to shower is l'Chatchilah!
Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
Answer: It is R. Shimon:
(Beraisa - R. Meir): [On Shabbos] one may not shower his entire body in hot or cold water;
R. Shimon permits;
R. Yehudah forbids in hot water, he permits in cold water.
(Mishnah): And wiped himself, even if he used 10 towels...
The Reisha and Seifa each teach a Chidush:
The Reisha teaches, even though each towel is barely wet, since only one person wiped himself, he may not take them back lest he [forget, and] squeeze them;
The Seifa teaches, even though the towel is very wet, since there are many people, they may take it back - they will remind each other not to squeeze it.
(Beraisa): One may wipe himself with a towel and leave it in the window; he may not give it to a bathhouse attendant, for they are suspected of this matter (squeezing them, to give to another bather).
R. Shimon says, one may wipe himself with one towel and take it back home.
Question (Abaye): What is the Halachah?
Answer (Rav Yosef): R. Shimon permits [here], and also Rebbi, Shmuel, and R. Yochanan:
(Beraisa - Rebbi): When we learned from R. Shimon in Tako'a, we would bring to him [on Shabbos] oil and a towel, transferring them from Chatzer to roof, from roof to Karfef, from Karfef to Karfef, until we reached the bathing spring. (Presumably, they returned the towel and did not leave it Hefker. Tosfos - a Talmid may not bathe with his Rebbi, unless the Rebbi needs him - presumably, one Talmid sufficed, and he would return the towel himself, for R. Shimon permits this.)
(Shmuel): One may wipe himself with a towel and take it back home.
(R. Chiya bar Aba citing R. Yochanan): One may wipe himself with a towel and take it back home.
Question: But R. Yochanan said that the Halachah follows an anonymous Mishnah - and our Mishnah says, even if he used 10 towels, he may not take them back!
Answer: [He holds that it is not a Stam Mishnah -] his text says 'these are the words of Ben Chachinai':
(R. Chiya bar Aba): A bathhouse attendant may bring towels for women to the bathhouse [through Reshus ha'Rabim, by wearing them], on condition that he covers the majority of his head and body with it.
To wear Sachnisa (a large (Rashi; Rambam - small) turban; Tosfos - a very thin garment) in Reshus ha'Rabim, one must tie the ends at the bottom (lest it fall down or blow off).
(R. Chiya bar Aba): One must tie it below the shoulders.
Rava (to the people of his city): When [Nochri] soldiers force you to take their clothes to the bathhouse [on Shabbos], let them down from your shoulders [so it will be the way of wearing them].
RUBBING AND SCRATCHING ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): We may anoint and massage.
(Beraisa): We may anoint and massage the intestines, on Shabbos, as long as it is unlike one does on a weekday.
Question: How does one deviate?
Answer #1 (Rav Chama bar Chanina): He anoints before massaging.
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): He anoints and massages at the same time.
(Mishnah): But one may not rub hard.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): It is forbidden to stand on the floor of the Deyumeses river (it is salty), for this heats a person and cures.
(Rav Yehudah): There are 21 days during which it heals, including Shavu'os.
Question: Is Shavu'os the first or last day?
Answer: Shmuel taught that anything drunk for a cure works from Pesach until Shavu'os. (Here also, Shavu'os is the last day it helps!)
Rejection: Perhaps drinks help when the world is cold, but this works on account of heat, it is better after Shavu'os!
(R. Chelbo): [Superb] wine of Prugaisa (a place) and water of the Deyumeses severed the 10 Shevatim from Yisrael (they pursued these pleasures and neglected learning);
R. Elazar ben Arach went there - he was drawn after them, and forgot his learning.
When he returned, he tried to resume learning; he wanted to read "Ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem..." - the words came out 'Ha'Cheres Hayah Libam' (Ya'avetz - to hint to him that these pleasures made the 10 Shevatim lose Yir'as Shomayim, and their hearts became hard like earthenware. Formerly, his heart was a 'gushing spring', he outweighed all other Chachamim [regarding his power of reasoning - Avos 2:8]);
Rabanan prayed for him, he recovered his learning.
(Mishnah - R. Nehurai): Exile yourself to a place of Torah (go to where Chachamim are, do not say that they are Talmidim, so they should follow you); do not say that Torah will follow you - rather, your colleagues will cause you to retain it (when you learn one tractate, they learn others, this helps you to remember them); and do not rely on your understanding (even if you are very sharp, you will retain your learning only if you learn with others).
(Beraisa): R. Nehurai's real name was R. Nechemyah;
Some say, he was R. Elazar ben Arach;
He is called R. Nehurai because he was Manhir (enlightened) Chachamim's eyes in Halachah.
(Mishnah): One may not scratch himself.
(Beraisa): One may not scratch himself with Magredes on Shabbos;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, if his feet were dirty with mud and excrement, he may scrape them normally.
Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah's mother made a silver Magredes for him [for Shabbos, so it should be unlike a weekday act].
(Mishnah): One may not descend to Kordima.
This is because the mud there is slippery; he is prone to fall in, and might come to squeeze his garments.
THINGS FORBIDDEN ON ACCOUNT OF HEALING ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may not make Afiktizin.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is forbidden to induce vomiting through a potion, but by hand (sticking it down the throat) is permitted.
(Beraisa - R. Nechemyah): It is forbidden [to induce vomiting in order to eat more] even on a weekday, for this wastes food.
(Mishnah): One may not straighten limbs or vertebrae of a baby.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): One may wrap limbs of a baby (to straighten them, so they will not get bent).
Question: The Mishnah forbids this!
Answer: The Mishnah forbids straightening a vertebra that fell out of line [after the day of birth], for it is like building.