LIABILITY FOR VARIOUS ACTIONS ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah - Chachamim): [Both of these are forbidden...]
Question: If one hung it, what is the law?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): He is Chayav Chatas.
Objection (Abaye): If so, if someone hung a flask on a peg, is he [also] Chayav?
Answer #2 (Abaye): It is forbidden mid'Rabanan, lest one behave as if it is a weekday.
Abaye consolidated laws from several Beraisos:
The following are forbidden, but if one did them he is exempt - stretching out a leather pouch on pegs (this is like making an Ohel), hanging a Meshameres, spreading Kilah (a canopy over a bed), and assembling a chair that comes apart;
If one made a permanent Ohel, he is Chayav Chatas;
The following are permitted - putting a bed (that was on its side) on its legs, and opening a folding chair or toilet seat.
(Mishnah): One may not put wine in a hanging Meshameres on Shabbos.
Question: If one strained wine through it, what is the law?
Answer #1 (Rav Kahana): He is Chayav Chatas.
Objection (Rav Sheshes): It is unreasonable that R. Eliezer permits something for which Chachamim Mechayev Chatas!
Counter-objection (Rav Yosef): Why is this unreasonable? R. Meir is Mechayev Chatas for wearing Ir Shel Zahav [in Reshus ha'Rabim], and R. Eliezer permits!
(Beraisa - R. Meir): A woman may not go out wearing Ir Shel Zahav - if she did [in Reshus ha'Rabim], she is Chayeves Chatas;
Chachamim say, she may not go out with it; if she did, she is exempt;
R. Eliezer permits going out with it.
Answer (Abaye): R. Eliezer does not respond to R. Meir, rather, to Chachamim, who forbid and exempt. (Tosfos ha'Rosh - there is a 'Tana Kama' who forbids; Chachamim argue with him. R. Eliezer and R. Meir argue about the argument - R. Meir says that the Tana Kama is Mechayev Chatas, and Chachamim forbid but exempt; R. Eliezer says that the Tana Kama forbids but exempts, and Chachamim permit. If both R. Meir and R. Eliezer themselves forbid but exempt, there is not really a wide argument, just one holds that there is a Tana who is Mechayev, the other holds that there is a Tana who permits - PF. Alternatively, perhaps Chachamim forbid even in a Chatzer (like Rav and the Stam Mishnayos 57A and 64B), and R. Eliezer permits (like R. Yishmael, 64B). Rashash - it is not a wide argument - R. Meir holds that because it is forbidden l'Chatchilah, it is no longer a Tachshit, therefore one is liable.)
Question: For which [Av] Melachah do we warn him [for straining? Surely, if he was warned incorrectly he is not killed; Tosfos (Bava Kama 2A ul'R. Eliezer) is unsure whether or not one must be warned for the Av.]
Answer #1 (Rabah): We warn him for Borer.
Answer #2 (R. Zeira): We warn him for Meraked (sifting out Pesoles).
Support (Rabah, for himself): Straining resembles Borer, to take the food and leave the Pesoles (the wine comes through, the dregs are left in the Meshameres. Tosfos - it is the way to take the food only when there is more Pesoles.)
Support (R. Zeira, for himself): Straining resembles Meraked, the food goes to the bottom, the Pesoles is left on top. (Rambam rules that he is liable for Meraked or Borer.)
PROHIBITIONS ON ACCOUNT OF MAKING AN OHEL
(Rami bar Yechezkeil - Beraisa): One may not spread a Talis on four pegs - if he did, he is exempt.
If it was wrapped on a pole by a thread or string from before Shabbos, one may spread it on Shabbos (he adds to a temporary Ohel).
Question (Rav Kahana): What is the law concerning Kilah?
Answer (Rav): Even [some] beds are forbidden (this will be explained).
Question (Rav Kahana): What is the law concerning a bed?
Answer (Rav): Even [some] Kilos are permitted.
Question (Rav Kahana): What are the laws concerning Kilah and a bed?
Answer (Rav): Kilah is forbidden, a bed is permitted.
Resolution: Rav forbade even beds regarding assembling a bed that comes apart; he permitted even Kilos like Rami bar Yechezkeil (they are on strings, he merely extends them); he forbade Kilah and permitted a bed in the usual case (Kilah without a string, and standing a bed on its legs).
(Rav Yosef): I saw the Kilos of Rav Huna's house - on Shabbos night they were spread, on Shabbos morning they were [dismantled] on the floor.
(Rav citing R. Chiya): It is permitted to spread a curtain [in a doorway] and to take it down.
(Shmuel citing R. Chiya): It is permitted to spread Kilas Chasanim (a canopy spread over a pole running lengthwise above the middle of the bed, it slopes down on both sides) and to take it down.
(Rav Sheshes brei d'Rav Idi): This is only if the top is not a Tefach wide - otherwise, it is forbidden [on account of making an Ohel];
Even if the top is not a Tefach wide, if within three Tefachim of the top the width [between sides] is a Tefach, it is forbidden;
It is permitted only if [at the bottom] the sides are not a Tefach from the middle - if there is, it is forbidden, for a slanted Ohel is considered an Ohel. (Rashi - the total width is at most two Tefachim, it is not made to sleep under. Tosfos - perhaps the canopy rests on several poles, the width between any two must be less than a Tefach; alternatively, perhaps we are concerned only if 10 Tefachim above the bed it is a Tefach wide. Rashbam deletes this clause from the text, for a slanted Ohel is not considered an Ohel (Sukah 19B).)
It is permitted only if it does not hang a Tefach below [the sides of] the bed - if it does, it is forbidden (it makes the bed a roof with walls on two sides).
(Rav Sheshes brei d'Rav Idi): It is permitted to wear a felt hat on Shabbos.
Question: It was taught that it is forbidden!
Answer #1: It is forbidden [on account of an Ohel] only if it spreads out a Tefach from his head.
Objection: Is one liable if he (Rosh' text - is it forbidden to) spread a Talis a Tefach over his head?!
Version #1 (R. Chananel) Answer: A hat is tight (it is like an Ohel), a Talis is not tight.
Version #2 (Rashi) Answer #2: Rather, it is forbidden if it does not fit well (Rashi - lest it will blow off and he will carry it).
(Beraisa): One may spread a leather pouch with straps in its normal place.
(Rav): Two people may spread it, one may not (Rashi - he stretches it out well; Rashba - he ties one end at a time, the way Ohalim are made).
(Abaye): Kilah is forbidden even with 10 people, for it will surely be stretched.
(Beraisa): If one leg of an oven came off, the oven may be moved; if two came off, it is forbidden;
(Rav): Even if one came off it is forbidden - this is a decree lest he bang it in.
WILL TORAH BE FORGOTTEN?
(Rav): In the future Torah will be forgotten from Yisrael - it says "V'Hifla Hash-m Es Makosecha", just like "Hineni Yosef Lehafli Es ha'Am ha'Zeh Haflei va'Fele [...v"Ovda Chachmas Chachamav]", which refers to Torah.
(Beraisa): In Yavneh they taught that in the future Torah will be forgotten from Yisrael - it says "Hinei Yomim Ba'im...v'Hishlachti Ra'av ba'Aretz...Lishmo'a Es Divrei Hash-m", and "...Yeshotetu Levakesh Es Devar Hash-m v'Lo Yimtza'u";
"Devar Hash-m" refers to Halachah, the Ketz (latest possible time for Moshi'ach to come), and prophecy.
Question: What does it mean "Yeshotetu Levakesh Es Devar Hash-m"?
Answer: A woman will take a loaf of Terumah to synagogues and Batei Medrash to find out if it is Tahor or Tamei. (In the name of Noda bi'Yhudah - she will take the loaf [and not just tell what happened], because people will not know the Halachah, they will need to look for 'clouds of Tum'ah' over it.)
Question: Even if they forgot, this is explicitly written [that all foods Mekabel Tum'ah] - "Mi'Kol ha'Ochel Asher Ye'achel"!
Answer: Rather, she will ask if it is a Rishon [l'Tum'ah] or a Sheni.
Question: Also this is explicit [Maharshal - in the Torah], like a Mishnah teaches!
(Mishnah): If a [dead] Sheretz was found in a [Cheres] oven, the bread inside is a Sheni, for the oven is a Rishon.
Answer: They will be unsure about Rav Ada bar Ahavah's question:
Question (Rav Ada): We should view the entire oven as if it was full of Tum'ah [because the Sheretz is Metamei the entire contents], and the loaf should be a Rishon!
Answer (Rava): We do not view it like this:
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps all Kelim are Mekabel Tum'ah from the airspace of a Kli Cheres!
Rejection: "Kol Asher b'Socho Yitma...; Mi'Kol ha'Ochel Asher Ye'achel" - food is Mekabel Tum'ah from the airspace of a Kli Cheres, Kelim are not.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): Heaven forbid that Torah would be forgotten from Yisrael - "Ki Lo Sishakach mi'Pi Zar'o". (Maharsha - the others explain that this refers only to Shiras Ha'azinu.)
Question: How do we explain "Yeshotetu Levakesh Es Devar Hash-m"?
Answer: They will not find the Halachah and Mishnah clear [even] in one place (there will be many different opinions).