COVERS AND BOLTS
(Mishnah - Chachamim): In either case one may use it to close.
Question: What does it mean 'in either case'?
Answer (R. Aba): It means, whether or not it is tied - but it must be prepared from before Shabbos.
Question (R. Yirmiyah): You should say 'whether or not it hangs - but it must be tied'!
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): They argue here just like they argue about a dragging bolt (this will be defined).
(Mishnah): One may use a dragging bolt to lock in the Mikdash, but not outside the Mikdash;
If it is [not tied, rather,] resting [on the ground] it is forbidden everywhere.
R. Yehudah says, if it is resting it is permitted in the Mikdash, if it drags it is permitted [even] outside the Mikdash.
(Beraisa) Question: What is the 'dragging' bolt permitted in the Mikdash and forbidden outside?
Answer #1: It is tied to the wall, hangs down and reaches the ground.
R. Yehudah says this is permitted even outside the Mikdash!
Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): The bolt permitted only in the Mikdash is neither tied nor hanging; one removes it and leaves it in a corner.
(R. Yehoshua bar Aba): The Tana of Answer #1 is R. Eliezer [in our Mishnah - it follows that Chachamim of our Mishnah hold like R. Yehudah, who requires it to be tied to permit outside the Mikdash].
Answer (R. Aba): I hold like the following Tana:
(Beraisa): If a commoner designated a stick to use to open and to lock, he may do so [on Shabbos] only if it is tied and hanging;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, if it is prepared [it is permitted], even if it is not tied and hanging.
(Rav Yehudah bar Shilas citing R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
MOVING COVERS ON SHABBOS
Question: R. Yochanan contradicts himself!
(Mishnah): Any cover that has a handle may be moved on Shabbos.
(Rav Yehudah bar Shilas citing R. Yochanan): This is only if it is like a Kli (Rashi - it is fit for use by itself; Tosfos - it was prepared for use).
Suggestion: Perhaps R. Shimon ben Gamliel also requires the bolt to be like a Kli!
Rejection (Beraisa): If one cut Chariyos (hard, leafless Lulav branches) for the sake of [fire] wood, and then decided to use them to sit on, he must tie them;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, he need not tie them.
Answer: R. Yochanan holds like R. Shimon ben Gamliel in one respect (if it is prepared, it need not be tied or hanging), he argues with him regarding whether or not it must be like a Kli.
(R. Yitzchak Nafcha): The Halachah follows R. Eliezer (who requires that it be tied).
Question (Rav Amram - Mishnah): From their words (an episode in the days of R. Tzadok's father) we learn that one may close [a window with something that is not tied and hanging], measure [a Mikvah or rag] and tie [a non-permanent knot] on Shabbos.
Counter-question (Abaye): Do you ask because that is a Stam Mishnah [like Chachamim]? There is also a Stam Mishnah like R. Eliezer, that of the bolt (Amud A)!
Answer (Rav Amram): My Stam is preferable, because an act was done [to be lenient, they must have been sure that this is the Halachah].
(Mishnah): Any cover of a Kli that has a handle may be moved on Shabbos.
R. Yosi says, this applies to a cover of land [e.g. a pit] - covers of Kelim may be moved in any case.
(Gemara - Rav Yehudah bar Shilas): This is only if it is like a Kli.
All agree that a cover of land may be moved only if it has a handle handle (otherwise, it is like building);
All agree that covers of Kelim may be moved even if they have no handle;
Version #1: They argue about Kelim that were attached to the ground - the first Tana decrees on account of covers of land, R. Yosi does not decree.
Version #2: They argue about covers of ovens - the first Tana considers them like covers of land, R. Yosi considers them like covers of Kelim.
MOVING FOOD TO MAKE ROOM TO SIT ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): We may clear out even four or five boxes of straw or grain, to make room for guests or Talmidim in the Beis Medrash, but one may not clear out a storehouse;
We may clear out Tahor Terumah, Demai (doubtfully tithed produce), Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was taken, Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh that were redeemed and dry lupines, for goats [alternatively - poor people] eat it;
We may not clear out Tevel, Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was not taken, Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh that were not redeemed, Luf (arum, a type of legume) or mustard;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel permits Luf, for ravens eat it;
If bundles of straw, wood and soft pruned reeds were prepared for animals to eat, one may move them; if not, not.
(Gemara) Question: If we may clear out five boxes, there is no need to say that four are permitted!
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): We may clear out four out of five boxes (but not everything), or five out of a big storehouse.
Question: What does it mean 'but one may not clear out a storehouse'? (The Reisha forbids totally clearing it out!)
Answer: One may not begin to clear out a storehouse [because the contents are Muktzeh];
This is like R. Yehudah, who forbids Muktzeh.