DID ANY HONEST PEOPLE REMAIN AT THE TIME OF THE CHURBAN?
(Rava): Yerushalayim was destroyed because faithful people ceased from it - "...U'Vakshu bi'Rchovoseha Im Timtze'u ...Oseh Mishpat Mevakesh Emunah v'Eslach Lah".
Question: But Rav Katina taught that even when Yerushalayim stumbled, faithful people did not cease from it - "...Simlah Lechah Katzin Tihyeh Lanu" - you know matters that others seek to cover up [their ignorance about them] like with a garment;
"Veha'Machshelah ha'Zos Tachas Yadecha" - you know matters that others understand only after stumbling in them, so you will be our leader.
"Yisa va'Yom ha'Hu Leimor Lo Ehyeh Chovesh..." - Yisa refers to an oath, "Lo Sisa Es Shem Hash-m Elokecha la'Shav";
"Lo Ehyeh Chovesh [uv'Veisi Ein Lechem]" - I am not the type that locks himself in the Beis Medrash [even] when he has no bread in the house;
"V'Ein Simlah" - I do not know written Torah, Mishnah, or Gemara. (This shows that there were honest people)!
Suggestion: Perhaps they were not honest, just they were afraid to lie, lest they be asked to teach!
Rejection: If so, they could have said 'I learned, but I forgot' - "Lo Ehyeh Chovesh" implies that he never learned!
Answer: They were honest about Torah, but dishonest in business.
HOW MUCH MAY ONE SAVE ON SHABBOS?
(Mishnah): We may save a whole basket of loaves [from a fire], even if it has enough for 100 meals, or a [big] ring of figs or barrel of wine;
One may tell others 'Come save for yourselves' - if they are clever, after Shabbos they will make a calculation with him.
Question: To where may we save?
Answer #1: We may save to a Chatzer that has an Eiruv;
Answer #2 (Ben Beseira): We may save even to a Chatzer without an Eiruv;
Also, one may also save to there all Kelim that he uses [for eating and needs for Shabbos];
He may wear and wrap himself with as much as he can;
R. Yosi says, he may not wear more than 18 garments;
He may remove the clothes [in a safe place] and return to wear other clothes [standing to be burned. Rambam - R. Yosi teaches this; Rashi - the first Tana teaches this.]
He may tell others 'Come save with me'.
(Gemara) Question: The Reisha permits saving only enough for three meals!
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): One may save one basket, even if it has a lot; Lekapel (Rashi (19B) - to gather baskets in one big Kli; Tosfos - to save and go back and save again), he may save only enough for three meals.
Answer #2 (R. Aba bar Zavda): Both discuss Lekapel - there is no limit when saving to the same Chatzer, he may save only for three meals to another Chatzer.
Question (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): If one spread his garment and put (Tosfos; Rashi - emptied) many Kelim into it, what is the law?
Is this like saving one Kli, or like Lekapel (because it is many exertions)?
Answer: [A Beraisa teaches that if a barrel broke on the roof, one may bring and put a on the ground Rav Shizbi taught Rav Chisda 'on condition that he does not bring a Kli that holds more than three meals', and Rava said that this is a mistake (a big Kli is permitted) - this shows that it is like saving.
Question (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Why is Rav Shizbi wrong?
Answer (Rava - Seifa of Beraisa): He may not bring another Kli to catch the falling stream in midair or where it leaves the roof.
Inference: Another Kli is forbidden, but the first Kli may be any size!
OTHERS THAT HELP TO SAVE FROM A FIRE ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): A ring of figs...[after Shabbos they make a calculation with him].
Question: What do they calculate? What they took was Hefker (Rashi - for he said 'Save for yourselves'; Ran - because the owner may not save more himself)!
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): The Mishnah discusses Midas Chasidus (they go beyond the letter of the law - they return the food to him and he pays them for their toil).
Objection (Rava): A Chasid would not take wages for what he did on Shabbos!
Answer #2 (Rava): The Mishnah discusses one who fears Shomayim - he does not want to benefit from another [who was forced to Mafkir his food] - however, he does not want to [go beyond the letter of the law and] go unrewarded for his toil;
It teaches that if they are clever, and know that this is not wages for Shabbos, after Shabbos they will make a calculation with him.
(Mishnah) Question: To where may we save?...
Question: Why does it say in the Reisha 'Save for yourselves', and in the Seifa 'Save with me'?
Answer: Regarding food, the owner cannot take more than three meals [the rest is Hefker] - regarding clothing, there is no limit to how much he can save.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): He may wear [clothes], go out, and remove them; wear, go out, and remove them, the whole day;
R. Yosi says, he may not wear more than 18 garments - a cloak, a housecoat (worn under a cloak), a money belt, a close-fitting linen jacket, an undershirt, a sheet worn as a cloak, a scarf, two garter belts, two shoes, two socks, two gaiters (garments that go over the shoe and cover the leg), a belt on his loins, a hat, and a cloth on his neck (to clean his mouth and eyes).
THINGS THAT MIGHT EXTINGUISH FIRE
(Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Nanas): One may spread a [moist] kid's skin over a box that caught fire, because it gets charred [but does not burn, it will save the rest of the box];
One may make a Mechitzah with any Kli, whether it is full [of water] or empty, to prevent the fire from spreading;
R. Yosi forbids new Klei Cheres full of water, for they will break and extinguish the fire.
(Gemara - Rav Yehudah): If one end of a Talis caught fire, one may put water on the other side - if it extinguishes, this is no problem.
Question (Beraisa): If one end of a Talis caught fire, one may take it off and put it on again - if it extinguishes, this is no problem.
Answer: Rav Yehudah holds like Ben Nanas.
Question: Ben Nanas permits spreading a skin because it gets charred [and contains the fire] - does he permit Geram [causing] to extinguish?!
Answer: Yes - in the Seifa, R. Yosi forbids new Klei Cheres full of water, for they will break and extinguish the fire - this implies that the first Tana permits!
(Beraisa): If a lamp is on a board, one may shake the board and it will fall - if it extinguishes, this is no problem.
(D'vei R. Yanai): This is only if he forgot it - if he intentionally left it on the board, the board is a Bosis for Isur (the lamp, so he may not shake the board).
(Beraisa): If a lamp is in back of a door, one may open and close it normally - if the lamp extinguishes, this is no problem.
Rav cursed those who ruled according to this Beraisa.
Question (Ravina): Why did Rav curse them?
Suggestion: Rav holds like R. Yehudah (who forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven), the Beraisa is like R. Shimon (who permits).
Rejection: That is no reason to curse them!
Answer (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Even R. Shimon forbids this;
(Abaye and Rava): R. Shimon agrees that a Pesik Reisha is forbidden.
(Rav Yehudah): One may open and close a door in front of a bonfire on Shabbos (even though a gust could fan the fire).
Abaye cursed those ruled like this.
Question: What is the case?
If a normal wind is blowing, why does Abaye forbid (it is unlikely to fan the fire)?!
If an unusually strong wind is blowing, why does Rav Yehudah permit?!
Answer: A normal wind is blowing - Abaye decrees lest one will open even when a very strong wind blows, Rav Yehudah does not decree.
(Mishnah): One may make a Mechitzah...
Inference: Chachamim permit Gram Kivuy (causing to extinguish), R. Yosi forbids.
Question: Elsewhere, they taught oppositely!
(Beraisa): One may make a Mechitzah with empty Kelim or with full Kelim that don't usually break, i.e. metal Kelim;
R. Yosi says, even [earthenware] Kelim of [clay of] Kefar Sichin and Kefar Chananyah don't usually break. (He is more lenient than Chachamim!)
Suggestion: We can switch the opinions in our Mishnah (R. Yosi permits causing to extinguish, Chachamim forbid); in the Beraisa, R. Yosi addresses Chachamim according to their reasoning. (I permit causing to extinguish - even though you forbid; you should permit Kelim of Kefar Sichin, for they don't usually break!)
Rejection: Rabah bar Tachlifa taught that R. Yosi forbids causing to extinguish!
Answer: We do not switch the Mishnah; the entire Beraisa is R. Yosi, it is abbreviated, it means as follows:
(Beraisa): One may make a Mechitzah with empty Kelim or with full Kelim that don't usually break, e.g. metal Kelim;
Also Kelim of Kefar Sichin and Kefar Chananyah may be used, for they don't usually break - R. Yosi taught this.
Contradiction: Chachamim and R. Yosi both contradict themselves!
(Beraisa): If Hash-m's name was written on a person he may not wash or anoint [lest this erase His name] or stand in a filthy place (it is disgraceful to His name);
If he has a Mitzvah to immerse, he wraps a reed around it and immerses;
R. Yosi says, he immerses normally, as long as he does not rub it.
Resolution (for R. Yosi): Erasing Hash-m's name is different, for it says "V'Ibadtem Es Shemam...; Lo Sa'asun Ken la'Shem Elokeichem" - explicitly erasing the name is forbidden, Grama is permitted.
Question: Also regarding Shabbos, it says "Lo Sa'aseh Chol Melachah" - we should likewise expound, doing is forbidden, Grama is permitted!
Answer: Because a person is frantic about [losing] his money, if we permit Grama he may overtly extinguish.
Question: If so, the contradiction in Chachamim is even stronger!
Chachamim permit Grama regarding Shabbos, even though people are frantic about money - all the more so they should permit it regarding erasing Hash-m's name!
Counter-question: Surely, Chachamim do not require the reed on account of Chatzitzah - it would not help!
If it is tight, it is a Chatzitzah; if it is not tight, water will go through (and erase His name)!
Question: Why are we concerned that the reed is Chotzetz - the ink [of His name] itself is Chotzetz!
Answer: The case is, the ink is moist.
(Beraisa): The following are a Chatzizah if they are dry, not if they are wet - blood, ink, honey, and [a woman's] milk.
Answer (Rabah bar Shila): Chachamim forbid immersing because one may not be naked in front of Hash-m's name.
Question: Does R. Yosi permit to be naked in front of Hash-m's name?!
Answer #1: No, he covers the name with his hand.
Question: Chachamim should also permit this!
Answer: They forbid, lest he forget and remove his hand.
Objection: R. Yosi should also be concerned for this!
Answer #2: All agree that if a reed is available, he must use it - they argue about whether or not he must toil to find a reed:
R. Yosi holds that Tevilah bi'Zmanah (to immerse at the first opportunity to become Tahor) is a Mitzvah - therefore, if he cannot find one, he immerses without it.
Chachamim hold that Tevilah bi'Zmanah Lav Mitzvah - therefore, if he cannot find one, he waits until the morrow.