WHAT SHEGEGAH DOES MUNVAZ REQUIRE?
Question: [Munvaz obligates Shogeg even though he knew -] in what sense was he Shogeg?
Answer: He did not know that one must bring a Korban for it.
Chachamim argue - they hold that Shigegas Korban is not considered Shogeg.
Question: What kind of Shegagah do Chachamim require?
Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): It suffices if he was Shogeg about Kares, even if he know that it is forbidden by a Lav;
Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): He must be Shogeg about Kares and the Lav.
(Rava): Reish Lakish learns from "Asher Lo Se'asenah bi'Shgagah v'Ashem" - he must be Shogeg about Kares and the Lav.
Question: What does R. Yochanan learn from this?
Answer (Beraisa): "Me'Am ha'Aretz" - this excludes a Mumar;
R. Shimon bar Yosi says, "Asher Lo Se'asenah bi'Shgagah v'Ashem" - one brings a Korban only if he would have refrained had he known that it is forbidden.
A KORBAN FOR EACH MELACHAH
(Mishnah): There are 39 Avos Melachos.
Question: Why do we need to know the number?
Answer (R. Yochanan): This teaches that is one did all of them in one Helam, he is liable for each.
Question: In what case is he liable for each Melachah?
Answer: He knew that it was Shabbos, he forgot the Melachos.
According to R. Yochanan, we can say that he remembered that a Lav forbids Melachah, he forgot that there is Kares.
Question: According to Reish Lakish, he must be Shogeg even about the Lav [to bring a Korban] - if he forgot all of the Melachos, in what way did he remember Shabbos?!
Answer: He remembered that one may not leave the Techum. Our Mishnah is like R. Akiva, who forbids this mid'Oraisa (to go past 12 Mil from the city. He agrees that the Techum of 2,000 Amos is only mid'Rabanan. Ritva - we could have given other answers, e.g. he remembered the Toldos but forgot Avos - we prefer to teach a Chidush according to R. Akiva, since our Mishnah is like him.)
Question: Who is the Tana of the following Beraisa?
(Beraisa): If he was Shogeg about both [Shabbos and the Melachos], this is [the ultimate] Shogeg; if he was Mezid about both, this is [the ultimate] Mezid;
If he was Shogeg about Shabbos and Mezid about the Melachos, or vice-versa, or if he knew that the Melachah is forbidden but he thought that he is not Chayav Korban for it, he brings a Korban.
Answer: It is like Munvaz.
THE SHEGEGAH FOR OTHER CHIYUVIM
(Abaye): All agree that one is not Chayav Korban for Shevu'as Bituy (an oath to do or not to do something, or that he did or did not do it) unless he was Shogeg about the Lav.
[There is no reason to say that Munvaz would say so -] Abaye means, R. Yochanan agrees [according to Chachamim].
Objection: This is obvious - R. Yochanan only said that he can be Mezid about the Lav regarding Chayavei Kerisus, when he was Shogeg about Kares - here, there is no Kares, he must be Shogeg about the Lav!
Answer: Normally, one is not Chayav Korban for a Lav, Shevu'as Bituy is an exception - one might have thought that one is likewise liable even though he was Mezid about the Lav! Abaye teaches, this is not so.
Question (Beraisa) Question: When is a sacrifice brought for Shevu'as Bituy about the past? (We cannot say that he intended to swear truthfully but erred, this is not considered transgressing at all.)
Answer: He swore falsely, knowing that this is forbidden, but he did not know whether a sacrifice is brought for this.
Version #1 - Answer: The Beraisa is like Munvaz [who does not require Shigegas Kares]. (Rashi deletes Version #2 from the text.)
Version #2 - Suggestion: Perhaps this is like Munvaz.
Rejection: Regarding other Mitzvos, there is no Chidush, Munvaz does not require Shigegas Kares - Shevu'as ha'Edus is a Chidush, he would not need to teach that Shigegas Lav is not required!
Conclusion: We must say that the Beraisa is like Chachamim.
Abaye is refuted. (end of Version #2)
(Abaye): All agree that a Zar need not add a Chomesh for eating Terumah b'Shogeg unless he was Shogeg about the Lav.
He means, R. Yochanan agrees.
Objection: This is obvious - R. Yochanan only discussed Chayavei Kerisus, when he was Shogeg about Kares - here, there is no Kares, he must be Shogeg about the Lav!
Answer: One might have thought that the Chiyuv Misah bi'Dei Shamayim of Terumah is in place of Kares, he is liable if he was Shogeg about Misah even though he was Mezid about the Lav! Abaye teaches, this is not so.
(Rava): R. Yochanan obligates adding a Chomesh even if he was Mezid about the Lav;
Misah is in place of Kares, the Chomesh is in place of the Korban.
ONE WHO FORGOT WHICH DAY IS SHABBOS
(Rav Huna): If one is lost in the wilderness and does not know which day is Shabbos, he counts six days and guards the seventh [like Shabbos, and every seventh day after this];
(Chiya bar Rav): He guards one day (the morrow - it is improper to consider today Shabbos, since he was not guarding it until now) and counts six.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: Rav Huna learns from creation (the seventh day was Shabbos), Chiya bar Rav learns from Adam ha'Rishon (his first complete day was Shabbos).
Question #1 (against Chiya bar Rav - Beraisa): If one is on the road and does not know which day is Shabbos, he guards one day l'Shishah.
Suggestion: This means, he guards one day after counting six!
Answer: No, it means he guards one day and counts six.
Objection: If so, it should say so [instead of 'one day l'Shishah']!
Question #2 (Beraisa): If one is on the road or in the wilderness and does not know which day is Shabbos, he counts six days and guards the seventh.
Chiya bar Rav is refuted.
(Rava): Every day other than 'his Shabbos' [is really Safek Shabbos, so] he does only Melachah [e.g. obtaining food] necessary to live that day.
Objection: If he may not do even Melachah necessary to live on his Shabbos, he will die!
Answer: On his Erev Shabbos, he prepares extra food for his Shabbos.
Rejection: Perhaps his Erev Shabbos is really Shabbos [he is liable for preparing food for Motzei Shabbos]!
Correction: Rather every day including his Shabbos he does only Melachah necessary to live that day.
Question: If so, how is his Shabbos different than the other days?
Answer: He makes Kidush at the start of the day, and Havdalah when it ends (Mishnah Berurah - if possible, with wine or bread; if not, in Shemoneh Esre).
(Rava): If he knows how many days it has been since he began his journey, [surely it was not Shabbos,] he may do unlimited Melachah every seventh day from then.
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that we may also assume that he did not leave on Erev Shabbos, and that day should also be permitted every week - Rava teaches, this is not so, sometimes one finds a caravan leaving on Erev Shabbos and goes with it.
THE SOURCE FOR THE DISTINCTION
(Mishnah): If he knew about Shabbos...
Question: What is the source [that he is liable for each Shabbos]?
Answer (Rav Nachman): It says "V'Shomru Venei Yisrael Es ha'Shabbos", implying one Shemirah (observance) for many Shabbosos (Shabbos in the singular, even if he transgressed many Shabbosos, it is as if he transgressed one, he brings only one Korban);
It also says "V'Es Shabsosai Tishmoru", connoting one Shemirah [and Chiyuv Korban] for each Shabbos! (It is reasonable that he is liable only once when he totally forgot Shabbos, for this is one Shegegah; liability for each Shabbos is for remembering Shabbos but forgetting that today is Shabbos, for then each Shabbos is a separate Shegagah.)
Objection (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Just the contrary! (He agrees with the Halachah, he just argues about the connotations of the verses.)
"V'Shomru Venei Yisrael Es ha'Shabbos" implies that each Shabbos has its own Shemirah; "V'Es Shabsosai Tishmoru", connotes one [collective] Shemirah for many Shabbosos!