A UTENSIL THAT CAN NO LONGER BE USED AKIN TO ITS ORIGINAL PURPOSE
Answer #2 (Rava; also, R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): A bell without a clapper is Tamei because it can be banged against earthenware [to make it ring].
Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): It is Tamei because it can be used to give water to a child to drink.
Question: R. Yochanan says that a Kli is Mekabel Tum'ah only if it can be used akin to its intended purpose!
(Beraisa) Suggestion: "V'Chol ha'Kli Asher Yeshev Alav" - perhaps if a Zav sat on a [Kli that holds a] Se'ah or half-Se'ah, it becomes Tamei (an Av ha'Tum'ah)!
Rejection: "Asher Yeshev Alav" - the verse discusses a Kli meant to be sat on, not something that [if one sits on it,] people may tell him 'Get up, we need to use the Kli!'
(R. Elazar): We Metaher from Tum'as Medras (Mishkav u'Moshav) on account of 'Get up, we need to use the Kli!', but not from Tum'as Mes;
(R. Yochanan): This is Metaher even from Tum'as Mes.
Answer: The opinions of R. Yochanan and [his colleague] R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina above must be switched.
Question: Why do we switch the opinions of R. Yochanan and R. Yosi above - alternatively, we could switch the opinions of R. Yochanan and R. Elazar!
Answer: We have another source that R. Yochanan requires a Kli to have a use similar to its intended purpose:
(Mishnah): A sandal for an animal is Mekabel Tum'ah.
Question: Why is it Mekabel Tum'ah? (Kelim that serve only animals are not Mekabel Tum'ah!)
Answer #1 (Rav): One can drink water from it in war [when one does not have a regular cup];
Answer #2 (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): One can anoint oil from it in war;
Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): One who flees the front line [in war] can wear it to enable him to run over thorns and thistles.
Question: What is the difference between the answers of Rav and R. Yosi?
Answer: If the sandal is repulsive [it can be used for oil, but not for drinking].
Question: What is the difference between the answers of R. Yochanan and R. Yosi?
Answer: If the sandal is heavy [it can be used for oil, but not for fleeing. Maharsha - it is possible that R. Yochanan does not require a Kli to have a use akin to its intended purpose - he did not answer like Rav or R. Yosi, for he holds that soldiers do not take oil to war for anointing, and he teaches that even a repulsive sandal is Tamei. This is a retraction from Answer (f); indeed, we could switch the opinions of R. Yochanan and R. Elazar.]
WEARING TACHSHITIM OF THE HEAD ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): She may not go out with Ir Shel Zahav.
Question: What is this?
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is a crown (Tosfos; Rashi - round ornament) on which Yerushalayim is depicted, like R. Akiva made for his wife. (Rashash - the Gemara knew that it is a crown - it asked, this is forbidden even on weekdays, on account of the Churban! It answers, since it recalls Yerushalayim, the decree against crowns does not apply to it.)
(Beraisa - R. Meir): A woman may not go out with Ir Shel Zahav; if she did, she is Chayav Chatas;
Chachamim say, she may not go out with it; if she did, she is exempt;
R. Eliezer permits her to go out with it.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: R. Meir holds that it is a load (Ramban - because she does not intend for decoration, merely to flaunt her gold; Rashash - because Chachamim forbade wearing it, it is not a Tachshit);
Chachamim forbid it like other Tachshitim, lest she will take it off to show others;
R. Eliezer permits, for only very esteemed women wear it, and they do not take off Tachshitim to show others. (However, even esteemed women may not wear [regular] Tachshitim worn by all women.)
(Rav): A woman may not go out with Kalila (a band across the forehead);
(Shmuel): She may go out with it.
Version #1: All forbid Kalila of Niska (entirely of gold and silver) - they argue about Aruksa (a band of silk with gold and gems woven inside):
Rav considers the gold and gems to be primary (we are concerned she will show it to friends), Shmuel [is not concerned for this, for he] considers the band to be primary.
Version #2 - (Rav Ashi): All permit Kalila of Aruksa - they argue about Niska:
Rav is concerned that she will show it to friends.
Shmuel is not concerned, since it is worn by esteemed women, they will not show it to friends. (Maharsha - Rav could hold even like R. Eliezer, Shmuel could hold even like Chachamim. R. Eliezer permits Ir Shel Zahav, but he could forbid Kalila for it is worn by women of somewhat lower esteem. Chachamim forbid Ir Shel Zahav, but they could permit Kalila, for esteemed women are less eager to show it off to friends than Ir Shel Zahav. Me'iri - they could permit Kalila, for only the most elite women wear it.)
Rav Shmuel bar bar Chanah (to Rav Yosef): You taught us [before you became sick and forgot your learning] that Rav permits Kalila (i.e. Aruksa - this is like Rav Ashi)!
People told Rav that a great Chacham came to Neharda'a; he limps, and he permits Kalila.
\Rav: It must be that [in Eretz Yisrael] R. Efes died, R. Chanina was appointed Rosh Yeshivah, and Levi (who had been learning with R. Chanina outside the Yeshivah) came here because he had no one to learn with.
Suggestion: Perhaps R. Chanina died, R. Efes was still Rosh Yeshivah, and Levi came here because he had no one to learn with!
Rejection #1: If so, Levi would have learned inside the Yeshivah. (He would be submissive in front of R. Efes, his elder, but not in front of R. Chanina; until now he was outside to honor R. Chanina, who was a greater Chacham than R. Efes.)
Rejection #2: It was inevitable that R. Chanina would become Rosh Yeshivah, for Rebbi decreed this before his death (but R. Chanina had refused to be Rosh Yeshivah because R. Efes was older) - regarding Tzadikim it says "V'Sigzar Omer va'Yakam Lach".
Levi expounded in Neharda'a that Kalila is permitted - 24 women went out with Kalilos in the city.
Rabah bar Avuha expounded in Mechuza that Kalila is permitted - 18 women went out with Kalilos in one alleyway.
WEARING BELTS ON SHABBOS
(Rav Shmuel): Kamra (a prestigious belt) is permitted.
Version #1: He discusses Aruksa (gold and gems are woven inside);
(Rav Safra): It is permitted like a golden Talis (it is a Tachshit; we are not concerned lest one remove it, for then his clothes would fall).
Version #2: He discusses Niska (it is all gold);
(Rav Safra): It is permitted like a prince's belt. (It is not considered a load - all Yisrael are fitting to wear it; R. Tam - men do not take off Tachshitim to show others (at least according to Version #2).)
Question (Ravina): May one wear Kamra and also a belt?
Answer (Rav Ashi): This is like wearing two belts. (Rashi - it is forbidden; Tosfos - it is permitted only if a garment separates between them; Talmidei R. Yitzchak (brought in Rashi) - it is permitted in any case.)
(Rav Ashi): A thick slab of a cloak is permitted if it has straps [to tie it tightly].
(Mishnah): She may not go out with Katla.
This is a decorative garment tied around the neck (it gathers crumbs that fall from her mouth; alternatively, it is a gold half-ring around the neck that goes through the openings of her garment to clasp it closed).
(Mishnah): ...Nor with Nezamim.
These are nose rings.
(Mishnah): Nor with rings without a stamp.
Inference: If she went out with a ring with a stamp, she would be Chayav Chatas. (This is not a solid inference - really, we rely on a Mishnah (62A) which explicitly says this.)
This teaches that a ring with a stamp is not a Tachshit.
Contradiction (Mishnah #1): Tachshitim of women are Teme'im, i.e. Katla'os, earrings, rings with or without a stamp, and nose rings.
Answer #1 (R. Zeira): Our Mishnah is like R. Nechemyah [who says that the primary part of a ring is the stamp; it discusses rings with a wooden stamp, therefore they are not Tachshitim].
(Beraisa): If a metal ring has a stamp of balsam wood, it is Tamei (Mekabel Tum'ah, even though it does not hold anything, for it is considered a metal Kli);
If a balsam ring has a metal stamp, it is Tahor (like a wooden Kli that does not hold anything);
R. Nechemyah is Metamei (he always judges according to the part used, not the Ma'amid (what holds it in place), i.e.):
A ring is judged according to its stamp;
A yoke is judged according to its pegs [on each side of the ox' neck, to keep it in place];
A pole [on which merchandise hangs from nails] is judged according to its nails;
A ladder is judged according to its rungs;
A scale is judged according to its chains;
Chachamim judge [all of these] according to the Ma'amid.