OILS FORBIDDEN EVEN DURING THE WEEK
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): One may not light with Tzari (balsam sap).
Question: What is the reason?
Answer (Rabah): Since it smells nice (it is one of the ingredients in the Ketores), we decree lest he will take some of the sap [and be liable for extinguishing].
Question (Abaye): You should say that it is forbidden for it flies (Rashi - it is dangerous, it may burn the house; Tosfos - one may come to extinguish)!
Answer (Rabah): I agree that it is forbidden because it flies - I add, we also decree lest he will take some of the sap.
There was a mother-in-law who hated her daughter-in-law; she told her to anoint with balsam oil, and to light a lamp. The daughter-in-law did so; she was consumed in fire.
(Rav Yosef - Beraisa): "Umi'Dalos ha'Aretz Hish'ir Nevuzaradan...l'Chomrim ul'Yogvim" - Chomrim are people who collect balsam from Ein Gedi to Ramot;
Yogvim are people who hunt for the Chilazon from the hill of Tzur to Chaifah. (It seems that this is not the fish from whose blood we make Techeiles for Tzitzis. See Yad Ramah Sanhedrin 91a DH Amar.)
(Beraisa): One may not light with Tamei Tevel (untithed produce) on Chol, there is no need to say it is forbidden on Shabbos;
Similarly - one may not light with white kerosene on Chol, there is no need to say it is forbidden on Shabbos.
Question: We understand why white kerosene is forbidden - it flies;
Why is Tamei Tevel forbidden?
Answer: "...Mishmeres Terumosai" - the verse discusses two Terumos, Tahor and Tamei;
Just like you may not benefit (eat) from Tahor Terumah before separating it (it is Tevel), you may not benefit (e.g. burn) from Tamei Terumah before separating it.
OILS FORBIDDEN TO BE USED ON SHABBOS
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): One may not light with Tzari - this is balsam sap.
R. Yishmael says, one may not light with anything that comes from a tree.
R. Yishmael ben Brokah says, one may light only with things that come from produce.
R. Tarfon says, only olive oil may be used.
R. Yochanan ben Nuri: [This is unreasonable -] what will people in Bavel do, they have only sesame oil! People in Madai, Alexandria and Kaputkia have (respectively) only nut oil, radish oil and kerosene!
One may light with anything Chachamim did not forbid.
One may light with fish oil or tar;
R. Shimon Shezuri permits wild gourd and kerosene;
Sumchus says, the only thing that comes from flesh that one may light with is fish oil.
Question: Sumchus does not argue with the first Tana!
Answer: They argue about Rav Beruna's law (that one may put a drop of good oil into melted Chelev or fish innards and light with it) - we cannot determine which holds like Rav Beruna and which argues.
WHICH GARMENTS CAN BECOME TAMEI THROUGH TZARA'AS
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): A garment of [at least] three fingers by three fingers of any material derived from a tree is not Mekabel Tum'ah, unless it is of linen;
Any tree derivative may be used for Sechach (the roof of a Sukah), except for linen.
(Abaye): R. Shimon ben Elazar and Tana d'vei R. Yishmael agree with each other.
(Tana d'vei R. Yishmael - Beraisa): The Torah often says 'Beged' without specifying; in one place, it specified 'Tzemer u'Pishtim' - in all places, it refers to wool or linen.
(Rava): They argue regarding garments of other materials that are three Tefachim by three Tefachim - R. Shimon ben Elazar says that they Mekabel Tum'ah, Tana d'vei R. Yishmael says they do not.
Question: All agree that three by three fingers of wool or linen can receive [Tum'as] Tzara'as - from where do they learn this?
Answer (Beraisa): 'Beged' only teaches that a [full] garment can receive Tzara'as;
Question: What is the source for even three by three fingers?
Answer: "Veha'Beged" includes this.
Suggestion: Perhaps it comes to include three Tefachim by three Tefachim!
Rejection We know that from a Kal va'Chomer - even warp and woof threads receive Tzara'as, all the more so three by three Tefachim!
Question: The same Kal va'Chomer should teach that three by three fingers receives Tzara'as!
Answer: The Kal va'Chomer only teaches three by three Tefachim, for fabric this size is fitting for rich and poor alike;
It does not teach three by three fingers, for such pieces are fitting only for poor people; we learn three by three fingers only from the verse.
Question: Why not say that "Veha'Beged" includes three Tefachim by three Tefachim of garments of other materials!
Answer: "V'Beged Tzemer O b'Veged Pishtim" - wool and linen, nothing else.
Question: Perhaps that only excludes three fingers by three fingers (of other garments), but we learn three Tefachim by three Tefachim from Veha'Beged"!
Answer: There are two verses to exclude other garments - [the above verse and] "Beged ha'Tzemer O ha'Pishtim";
One verse excludes three fingers by three fingers, the other excludes three Tefachim by three Tefachim.