[17a - 36 lines; 17b - 36 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 17a DH Choshev Mashkeh ד"ה חושב משקה:

The words "l'Hachshir Ochel sheb'Socho" להכשיר אוכל שבתוכו

should be "sheb'Socho, l'Hachshir Ochel" שבתוכו להכשיר אוכל


1)[line 1]אקפח את בניAKAPE'ACH ES BANAI- I will bury my sons

2)[line 1]מקופחתMEKUPECHES- distorted

3)[line 2]האיכרHA'IKAR- a farmer

4)[line 10]היקפוHEIKEFO- its circumference

5)[line 17]בוצריןBOTZRIN- we pick grapes

6)[line 18]אין מוסקיןEIN MOSKIN- we do not pick olives

7)[line 18]תקניטניTAKNITEINI- you will anger me

8)[line 27]כלי טמא חושב משקיןKLI TAMEI CHOSHEV MASHKIN

(a)All foods become Teme'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Teme'im is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Teme'im. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Teme'im: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.

(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that water or other liquids that fall on the food must be desirable to the owner of the food, as though he himself applied them.

(c)If one of these liquids was itself undesirable, and the owner planned to throw it away, it cannot be Machshir. Only liquids that are significant can be Machshir. According to Rebbi Meir, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel agree that if a liquid fell into a utensil that was Tamei, the liquid will be Machshir, whether the owner considered it significant or not. According to Rebbi Yosi, this is only the ruling of Beis Shamai.

9)[line 30]קופות מזופפותKUPOS MEZUFAFOS- tarred baskets

10)[line 31]הנושכותHA'NOSHCHOS- [clusters of grapes] that are intertwined

11)[line 35]מזלףMEZALEF- he sprinkles [juice from the grapes]


12)[line 1]טבי רישבאTAVI RISHBA- Tavi the trapper

13)[line 1]גידולי תרומה תרומהGIDULEI TERUMAH, TERUMAH

After a person separates Terumah from his crops, he must give it to a Kohen. If the Terumah itself was planted, the Chachamim decreed that the resulting crop is all Terumah. The reason for the decree is to prevent Kohanim from holding on to their Terumah Teme'ah until the planting season. Even though the crop that grows is no longer Tamei (as derived in Pesachim 34a), the Chachamim feared that it would be mistakenly eaten before it is planted. A person who eats Terumah Teme'ah violates a positive commandment.

14)[line 7]הימוני מהימניHEIMUNEI MEHEMNEI- they are trusted [not to plant Terumah in an attempt to avoid the Mitzvah to give it]

15)[line 23]זיבהZIVAH

(a)A Zav, whether he sees Zov two or three times, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. He can cause objects that are under him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether he touches them or not. These objects are then called Mishkav and Moshav, or the Tachton, of a Zav. Any object (besides earthenware utensils and foods) may become a Mishkav or Moshav if it was made for lying or sitting upon. A person who is touching or carrying a Mishkav or Moshav is Metamei the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he may be touching. These items get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(b)Utensils or clothes which lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

(c)The Chachamim decreed that all Nochri boys have the status of a Zav even if they never had a discharge of Zov. The decree was instituted so that Jewish boys should stay away from them and not learn from their ways.

16)[line 26]דיוDYO- cakes of dry ink

17)[line 27]וסמניםV'SAMANIM- paints; dyes

18)[line 27]כרשיניןKARSHININ- (O.F. vece) vetch, the beans of a species of vine, probably the horse-bean (which is rarely used as human food)

19)[line 27]ישורוYISHORU- they will be soaked/dissolved

20)[line 29]אוניןUNIN- (O.F. ristes) bundles of combed flax

21)[line 30]יהבילוYAHAVILU- they should become hot

22)[line 30]יורהYOREH- in a vat

23)[line 31]שיקלוט העיןSHE'YIKLOT HA'AYIN- that it should absorb the color

24)[line 32]מצודותMETZUDOS- traps

25)[line 34]אין טוענין עמוEIN TO'ANIN IMO- it is forbidden to load a donkey with him

26)[line 34]שיגיע למקום קרובSHE'YAGI'A L'MAKOM KAROV- that is, unless his destination is close enough that he will be able to arrive there before Shabbos

27)[line 35]עבדןABDAN- a tanner

28)[last line]עם השמשIM HA'SHEMESH- as long as the sun is still shining and has not set