1)SAVING OTHERS FROM SHAME
(a)(Beraisa): We are Me'aber the year only with judges who were invited;
1.Once, Raban Gamliel requested that seven be invited for Ibur Shanah. He found that eight were there. He asked that whoever was not invited leave.
2.Shmuel ha'Katan: I was not invited. I did not come to be Me'aber, only to learn.
3.Raban Gamliel: You may stay. You are qualified for Ibur, but Chachamim require judges who were invited.
i.Really, Shmuel ha'Katan had been invited. He (falsely) confessed to save the uninvited one from shame.
(b)Rebbi was expounding. He smelled garlic, and asked the one who had eaten garlic to leave. R. Chiya left, then everyone else left.
1.R. Shimon bar Rebbi (to R. Chiya): You pained my father!
2.R. Chiya: I would never do such a thing! (I left to save the guilty party from shame.)
(c)R. Chiya learned this from R. Meir.
(d)(Beraisa): A woman once came to R. Meir's Beis Medrash and said 'one of you was Mekadesh me through Bi'ah.' R. Meir wrote a Get and gave it to her. Everyone did the same.
(e)Question: R. Meir learned from Shmuel ha'Katan. From whom did Shmuel ha'Katan learn?
(f)Answer: He learned from Shechanyah.
1."Va'Ya'an Shechanyah... va'Noshev Nashim Nochriyos." (He did not marry a Nochris. He said this only to minimize the shame of those who did..)
(g)Shechanyah learned from (what Hash-m said to) Yehoshua.
1.When Hash-m said "...Chota Yisrael", Yehoshua asked who had sinned.
2.Hash-m: I am not a talebearer! Cast lots.
(h)Alternatively, we can say that Shechanyah learned from (what Hash-m said to) Moshe.
1.Hash-m said "Ad Anah Me'antem", as if everyone sinned.
(i)(Beraisa): After the death of the last Nevi'im, Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi, Ru'ach ha'Kodesh left Yisrael. Still, they would (sometimes) hear a Bas Kol (voice from Heaven);
1.Once Chachamim were sitting in the second story of a house in Yericho. They heard a Bas Kol say that one of them is worthy of Shechinah, but the generation is not worthy of this. Everyone looked at Hillel.
2.When he died, they said 'this was a Chasid! This was a humble person, a Talmid of Ezra.'
3.Once Chachamim were in Yavneh. They heard a Bas Kol say that one of them is worthy of Shechinah, but the generation is not worthy of this. Everyone looked at Shmuel ha'Katan.
4.When he died, they said 'This was a Chasid! This was a humble person, a Talmid of Hillel.'
5.Just before Shmuel ha'Katan died, he said (with Ru'ach ha'Kodesh) 'R. Shimon (ben Gamliel) and R. Yishmael will be killed by the sword. Their colleagues will be killed. The rest of the nation will be despoiled, and troubles will come upon the world.'
6.They wanted to eulogize Bava ben Buta similarly, but they were unable. We do not eulogize those killed by the king.
2)REASONS TO BE ME'ABER THE YEAR
(a)(Beraisa): We are not Me'aber the year unless the Nasi wants to. A case occurred in which Raban Gamliel went to speak to the ruling authority in Surya. He delayed returning, and they were Me'aber the year in his absence on condition that he will agree.
1.When he returned, he agreed, and the year was Me'ubar.
(b)(Beraisa): We are Me'aber a year only for the following needs of Pesach: to allow time for repair of roads or bridges (that became ruined in winter, and are needed to get to Yerushalayim); to allow time for (newly made) ovens to dry; or if people from Chutz la'Aretz already started to come but will not arrive in time for (the first) Pesach.
1.We are not Me'aber the year due to snow, the cold, or people of Galus who did not yet start to come.
(c)(Beraisa): We are not Me'aber the year in order that more young goats or lambs will be available (for Korban Pesach), or to allow a larger supply of doves that cannot yet fly (for people (Mechusarei Kipurim) who may not eat Kodshim until they bring two birds );
1.We can join this to a reason for which we are Me'aber;
2.Question: What is an example of this?
3.Answer: R. Yanai said that R. Shimon ben Gamliel once sent the message, "We inform you that the pigeons are too young, the sheep are too thin, the season of Aviv (when the early grain (barley) ripens) has not yet come. It is proper in my eyes to add 30 days to the year."
(d)Question (Beraisa): We add 30 days to make an Ibur Shanah;
1.R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, we add a month (i.e. 29 days. This is unlike R. Yanai, who said that R. Shimon holds that we add 30 days!)
(e)Answer (Rav Papa): R. Shimon ben Gamliel means, we may add 29 or 30 days.
(f)See the difference between the early powerful Chachamim (Raban Gamliel) and the later humble Chachamim (his son R. Shimon ben Gamliel):
1.(Beraisa): Once, Raban Gamliel was sitting on a step in Har ha'Bayis. Yochanan the scribe was in front of him, with three parchments suitable to write letters.
i.Raban Gamliel: Take this letter, and write 'to our brothers in Upper and Lower Galil. You should always have Shalom! We inform you that the time for Bi'ur has come. You must tithe the olives';
ii.Take this letter, and write 'to our brothers in the south (of Eretz Yisrael). You should always have Shalom! We inform you that the time for Bi'ur has come, and you must tithe the sheaves';
iii.Take this letter, and write 'to our brothers in Bavel, Madai and other places in Chutz la'Aretz (who had not yet heard about the Ibur Shanah). You should always have Shalom! 'We inform you that the pigeons are too young, the sheep are too thin, the season of Aviv has no yet come, it is proper in my eyes and the eyes of my colleagues to add 30 days to the year.' (Even though R. Gamliel was a powerful Nasi, he mentioned that his colleagues agreed, but R. Shimon ben Gamliel did not mention his colleagues!)
(g)Rejection: Perhaps Raban Gamliel wrote this (and mentioned his colleague(s)) after he was deposed from being Nasi (he and R. Elazar ben Azaryah used to alternate being the Nasi).
(h)(Beraisa): We are Me'aber the year due to three things: for Aviv, for fruits of the tree (to enable people to bring Bikurim when they come to the Mikdash on Shavu'os. If they have not ripened yet, people will need to come again to bring them when they ripen), and for the Tekufah (Pesach must come after the end of winter (the spring equinox), Sukos must come after the end of summer (the fall equinox).
1.We are Me'aber due to two of these, but not for only one of them.
2.Everyone is happy when Aviv is one of the reasons for an Ibur Shanah (since the grain is not ready anyway, people do not mind waiting another month until they may eat Chadash (grain planted after Pesach is forbidden until the day we offer the Omer, the second day of the next Pesach).
3.R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, due to the Tekufah.
4.Question: Does he mean that people are happy when we are Me'aber due to the Tekufah (Sukos will not come in winter, so the trip to Yerushalayim will not be difficult), or that we are Me'aber due to the Tekufah alone (since it says "v'Chag ha'Asif Tekufas ha'Shanah")?
5.This question is unsettled.
(i)(Beraisa): We are Me'aber the year due to (Aviv, if it has not yet ripened in) two of three regions: Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden, and Galil. We are not Me'aber due to one of them.
1.Everyone is happy when Yehudah is one of them, since (l'Chatchilah) the Omer must come from Yehudah.
3)WHERE AND WHEN WE ARE ME'ABER THE YEAR
(a)(Beraisa): We are Me'aber the year only in Yehudah. If it was made Me'aber in Galil, it is Me'ubar;
(b)Chananya Ish Ono testified that if it was made Me'aber in Galil, it is not Me'ubar.
(c)(R. Yehudah brei d'R. Shimon ben Pazi): Chanayah learns from "l'Shichno Sidreshu u'Vosa Shamah" - all Drishos (investigations) must be in Hash-m's Shechunah (region, i.e. Yerushalayim, which is in Yehudah).
(d)(Beraisa): We are Me'aber the year only during the day. If it was made Me'aber at night, it is not Me'ubar;
(e)We are Mekadesh the month only during the day. If it was Mekudash at night, it is not Mekudash.
(f)(R. Aba): We learn from "Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar ba'Keseh l'Yom Chagenu" - the Chag (Yom Tov) during which the moon is Mechuseh (covered, i.e. new and invisible) is Rosh Hashanah;
1."... Mishpat lEilokei Yakov" - just like Mishpat must be during the day, also Kidush ha'Chodesh.