EXPOUNDING A VERSE AS WE READ IT, OR AS IT IS WRITTEN
(Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef): The following Tana'im all expound the way we read (pronounce) a verse: Rebbi, R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz, Beis Shamai, R. Shimon and R. Akiva.
Rebbi expounds "Yarshi'un" (above);
R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz expounds this way in a Beraisa.
(Beraisa) Question: When the Torah says that a woman who gave birth to a girl is Tamei "Shevu'ayim" (two weeks), the word lacks a 'Vav', should we read 'Shiv'im' (70 days)?
Answer (R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz): (A woman who gave birth to a boy is Tamei for seven days, followed by 33 days of Taharah.) Just like the days of Taharah for giving birth to a girl are (66,) twice that for a boy, likewise the days of Tum'ah are twice as many.
After the Talmidim left, R. Yehudah ran after them and said 'we need not learn from a woman who gave birth to a boy. We expound like we read it, i.e. "Shevu'ayim."'
Beis Shamai expound this way in a Mishnah.
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Any Korban whose blood is thrown on the outer Altar, if it was thrown once, it atoned, except for a Chatas, for which two sprinklings are needed;
Beis Hillel say, even for a Chatas, one sprinkling suffices.
(Rav Huna): Beis Shamai learn from the three times it says "Keranos" (plural), teaching six. We use four to teach l'Chatchilah, and two to teach what is Me'akev (necessary for atonement).
Two of the occurrences of 'Keranos' are written missing the 'Vav' (as if it says 'Karnas', singular). Beis Hillel learn only one from each of those, and two from "Keranos" written with a 'Vav', making four in all;
They use one to teach what is Me'akev, and three to teach l'Chatchilah (to sprinkle on three additional corners).
Question: Why not use all four to teach l'Chatchilah?
Answer: We never find atonement without any sprinkling.
R. Shimon expounds this way in a Beraisa.
(Beraisa): Two walls of a Sukah must be the full required length (seven Tefachim). One wall may be (just over) a Tefach (if placed within three Tefachim of a wall);
R. Shimon says, three walls must be the full length. One wall may be (just over) a Tefach.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: Chachamim expound the way a verse is written, and R. Shimon expounds the way we read it.
Two occurrences of 'Sukos' are written missing the 'Vav' (as if it says 'Sukas', singular). Chachamim learn only one (wall) from each of those, and two from "Sukos" written with a 'Vav', making four in all. We do not expound the first occurrence, so three remain;
A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches that one of them may be even a Tefach, leaving two full walls;
R. Shimon learns two walls from each "Sukos", even those written without a 'Vav', six in all. We do not expound the first occurrence, so four remain;
A tradition from Sinai teaches that one may be a Tefach, leaving three full walls.
R. Akiva expounds this way in a Beraisa.
(Beraisa - R. Akiva) Question: What is the source that a Revi'is of blood from two dead bodies conveys Tum'ah to an Ohel?
Answer (R. Akiva): "Al Kol Nafshos Mes" alludes to two souls, and (Mes alludes to) one Shi'ur of blood (essential to life);
Chachamim expound the way it is written, 'Nafshas' (singular).
Objection (Rav Acha bar Yakov): Surely, all the Tana'im expound the way we read a verse!
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "ba'Chalev Imo" forbids (Rashi - only; Ran - even) cooking meat in Chelev (intestinal fats)!
Rejection: We learn (only) from the way we read it (milk. No Tana forbids cooking meat in Chelev. All must learn like this Beraisa! Rav Acha bar Yakov now gives a new explanation of the Tana'im who seemed to expound the way a verse is written.)
Chachamim (who argue with Rebbi) also expound the way we read (Yarshi'un);
Rebbi says, this teaches two judges in addition to those mentioned above. Likewise, "ha'Elohim" above also refers to two, making four (we add a fifth to make an odd number of judges);
Chachamim explain, "Yarshi'un" refers to the two judges learned, once above and once here (the Chachamim are saying that the two judges above are the same as the two below, and therefore we need a total of two).
No one argued against R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz;
Beis Hillel also expound the way we read a verse;
(Beraisa): It says "v'Chiper" three times, so we will not learn from a Kal va'Chomer that all sprinklings are Me'akev.
Question: A Kal va'Chomer teaches that only one is Me'akev!
The Torah mentions blood (e.g. of Asham and Shelamim) that is thrown on the bottom half of the Altar, and blood (of a Chatas) put on top of the Altar:
Just like one throwing of blood below atones, also of blood above.
Suggestion: Perhaps we should instead learn from blood (of certain Chata'os of the congregation) brought on the inner Altar;
Regarding the inner Altar, if any sprinkling was omitted, there is no atonement. We should say the same about (Chata'os of) the outer Altar!
Answer: It is better to learn Chata'os of the outer Altar from Korbanos of the outer Altar, and not from those of the inner Altar.
Question: Perhaps it is better to learn Chata'os, whose blood (l'Chatchilah) is put on the four corners (of the Altar) from Chata'os whose blood is put on the four corners, and not from other Korbanos, whose blood is not put on the four corners!
Answer: Since we might have learned from the inner Chata'os, it says "v'Chiper" three times:
The first teaches that even if one of the four corners was omitted, the Korban atoned. The second teaches (that it atones) even if two were omitted. The third teaches that even if blood was put only on one corner, it atoned.
Chachamim (who argue with R. Shimon) also expound the way we read (Sukos);
They also learn four walls like R. Shimon. They use one of them to teach that we need Sechach (a ceiling). R. Shimon does not need a verse for this.
Chachamim (who argue with R. Akiva) also expound the way we read (Nafshos);
They say that this refers to souls in general. R. Akiva explains, souls from which this blood came.
Objection: Not all agree that we expound the way we read a verse!
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Two occurrences of 'Totafos' are written missing the 'Vov' (as if it says 'Totafas', singular). We only learn one from each of those, and two from "Totafos" written with a 'Vov', making four in all, teaching that there are four compartments in the head Tefilin;
R. Akiva says, we need not expound that way. In Katfi (a place) 'Tat' means two, and in Afriki, "Fos' means two.
HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION FROM CHALAV
Answer #1 (to Rav Acha's Objection 2:a): Tana'im argue about whether we expound the way we read or the way we write a verse only when it is not read like it is written;
Chalav and Chelev are both written the same way, therefore all expound the way we read it.
Objection: Yir'eh (will see) and Ye'ra'eh (will be seen) are both written the same, and a Tana argues (and expounds both)!
(Beraisa - Yochanan ben Dehavai): Someone blind in one eye is exempt from entering the Mikdash on the festivals. It says "Ye'ra'eh... Yir'eh" - Hash-m sees those who come, and His Presence is seen by them (Rashi; Tosfos - those who come see His Presence, and they are seen by Him);
Just like there is no flaw in Hash-m's vision, there us no flaw in the vision of those obligated to come.
Answer #2 (to Objection 2:a): "Lo Sevashel Gdi ba'Chalev Imo" - the Torah forbade the way of cooking (i.e. in milk, which is watery. Chelev is fat. One does not cook in it, one fries in it.)