[52a - 48 lines; 52b - 58 lines]
1a)[line 3]שאם היו נוהגין בו קודשIM HAYU NOHAGIN BO KODESH- although in the past we had treated him with distinction (with regard to the Halachos of Kedushas Kehunah, through which we set aside the Kohanim from the rest of the people, such as calling him to begin the Torah reading, to speak first in a public forum, to be the first to expound the words of the Torah in a scholarly gathering, to recite the "ha'Motzi" Berachah and the Birkas ha'Mazon at a meal, to serve him the finest portion at a meal, etc.)
b)[line 4]נוהגין בו חולNOHAGIN BO CHOL- i.e., we no longer extend these privileges to him
2a)[line 4]כבודKAVOD- honor, respect
b)[line 5]בזיוןBIZAYON- disgrace
3a)[line 5]ארור שזו ילדARUR SHE'ZO YALAD- cursed is the one who gave birth to her (her mother)
b)[line 5]ארור שזו גידלARUR SHE'ZO GIDEL- cursed is the one who brought her up (her nursemaid or caregiver)
c)[line 6]ארור שיצא[ה] זו מחלציוARUR SHE'YATZ'AH ZO ME'CHALATZAV- cursed is the one from whose loins she issued (her father) (MAHARSHA)
4a)[line 6]כמאן קרינן רשיעא בר רשיעאK'MAN KARINAN RESHI'A BAR RESHI'A- according to whom do we call (i.e. publicize) an evildoer, "an evildoer, son of an evildoer"
b)[line 7]ואפילו לרשיעא בר צדיקאVA'AFILU L'RESHI'A BAR TZADIKA- and even if he happens to be an evildoer, the son of a righteous person
5)[line 14]היו משקעין אותו בזבל עד ארכובותיוHAYU MESHAK'IN OSO B'ZEVEL AD ARKUVOSAV- they would sink him into dung until his knees
6a)[line 15]סודר קשהSUDAR KASHEH- a strap of hard cloth
b)[line 15]לתוך הרכהL'SOCH HA'RAKAH- into a soft [cloth or scarf]
7)[line 15]וכורך על צוארוKORECH AL TZAVARO- he wraps it around his neck
8)[line 17]ומדליק את הפתילהMADLIK ES HA'PESILAH- he melts the bar (lit. string) [of lead]
9)[line 18]וחומרת את בני מעיוCHOMERES ES BENEI ME'AV- it burns his innards
10)[line 20]בצבתTZEVAS- (O.F. tenailles) tongs (an instrument with two arms joined at one end, used for grasping and holding things)
11)[line 22]והקיפוה חבילי זמורותHIKIFUHA CHAVILEI ZEMOROS- they surrounded her with bundles of branches
12)[line 24]פתילה של אָבָרPESILAH SHEL AVAR- a bar (lit. string) of molten lead
13a)[line 25]שריפת נשמהSEREIFAS NESHAMAH- burning of the innards (lit. soul)
b)[line 25]וגוף קייםV'GUF KAYAM- and the body remains intact
14)[line 28]"(ו)אֵת מַחְתּוֹת הַחַטָּאִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּנַפְשׁוֹתָם, [וְעָשׂוּ אֹתָם רִקֻּעֵי פַחִים צִפּוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, כִּי הִקְרִיבֻם לִפְנֵי ה' וַיִּקְדָּשׁוּ; וְיִהְיוּ לְאוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל]""ES MACHTOS HA'CHATA'IM HA'ELEH B'NAFSHOSAM..."- "As for the censers of these sinners against their own souls, [let them make them into hammered plates for a covering of the altar, for they offered them before HaSh-m, therefore they are consecrated; and they shall be a sign to the people of Yisrael]" (Bamidbar 17:3).
15)[line 30]על עסקי נפשותםAL ISKEI NAFSHOSAM- (lit. with regard to their souls) through to the flattery that Korach showed to them by feeding them food and drink during the night that he scoffed at Moshe and Aharon, the Torah, and eventually, at HaSh-m Himself. That flattery penetrated their souls until they totally aligned themselves with Korach (RASHI).
16)[line 31]"בְּחַנְפֵי לַעֲגֵי מָעוֹג, חָרֹק עָלַי שִׁנֵּימוֹ""B'CHANFEI LA'AGEI MA'OG, CHAROK ALAI SHINEIMO"- "Like profane men, scornful mockers, they gnashed at me with their teeth" (Tehilim 35:16) - "Ma'og" refers to a food item.
17a)[line 31]בשביל חנופה שהחניפו לקרח על עסקי לגימהBISHVIL CHANUFAH SHE'HECHENIFU L'KORACH AL ISKEI LEGIMAH- due to the flattered Korach for the matter of the food (see above, entry #15)
b)[line 32]חרק עליהן שר של גיהנם שניוCHARAK ALEIHEN SAR SHEL GEHINOM SHINAV- the heavenly agent in charge of Gehinom gnashed his teeth at them (see BEN YEHOYADA)
18)[line 34]דאתחיל בהו מגואיD'ASCHIL BEHU MI'GAVA'I- it started in them from the inside
19)[line 36]בחוטמוCHOTMO- his nose
20)[line 36]"[וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי ה'] וַתֹּאכַל אוֹתָם; [וַיָּמֻתוּ לִפְנֵי ה']""[VA'TEZEI ESH MI'LIFNEI HASH-M,] VA'TOCHAL OSAM..."- "[And a fire emerged from before HaSh-m,] and consumed them; [and they died before HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 10:2) - The word "Osam" implies a limitation, that only "they" were burned and none other; does this not imply that their bodies were still intact?
21)[line 37]מפרים הנשרפיםPARIM HA'NISRAFIM
(a)The Torah requires that on certain occasions, a bull be brought as a Korban Chatas, the blood of which is brought into the Heichal and is sprinkled on the Paroches and on the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The flesh of these bulls is entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited.
(b)These bulls are:
1.The bull offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim, the blood of which is also sprinkled in the Kodshei Kodashim (Vayikra 16:27);
2.The bull brought by the Kohen Gadol if he sinned b'Shogeg (Par Kohen Gadol) (Vayikra 4:12, see Background to Kidushin 36:22:I); and 3. the bull brought by the Sanhedrin if they erred in a Halachic ruling and caused the people to sin b'Shogeg (Par He'elem Davar) (Vayikra 4:21, see Background to Sanhedrin 2:13b).
22a)[line 38]אדם חוטא נשמה פיגולADAM, CHOTEI, NESHAMAH, PIGUL- these words stand for the topics that are in common between the death penalty of Sereifah and the paradigm of either Adas Korach or Benei Aharon, as follows:
1.Adam refers to the fact that all three cases involve people, as opposed to the category of Parim ha'Nisrafim, which involves animals.
2.Chotei refers to the fact that the person who is liable to Sereifah, the members of Adas Korach and (on their own level) Benei Aharon were liable to some Chet, a misdeed, as opposed to the Parim ha'Nisrafim, where this does not apply (as the animals did no misdeed).
3.Neshamah refers to Netilas Neshamah, the fact that as a result of the burning, the lives of the people involved in these three cases were ended. The Parim ha'Nisrafim, however, were already slaughtered at the time of their burning.
4.Pigul refers to the fact that the prohibition of Pigul (see next entry) has nothing to do with these three cases, while it does affect Parim ha'Nisrafim.
b)[line 38]פיגולPIGUL (CHUTZ LI'MEKOMO / CHUTZ LI'ZEMANO)
(a)CHUTZ LI'MEKOMO - A Korban that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or offering it outside of the area designated for it becomes disqualified, and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from verse that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra 19:7, see below, (c)-(d)). Although Chazal usually use the term "Pigul" (putrid, rejected) to refer only to the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, our Gemara is based on the verse that also uses this term in reference to Chutz l'Mekomo (RASHI to Sanhedrin 42b DH Pigul).
(b)If a person eats intentionally from a Korban that was offered with the intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from it unintentionally, he does not bring a Korban Chatas.
(c)CHUTZ LI'ZEMANO - A sacrifice that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or offering it after its allotted time becomes disqualified. It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as it states in Vayikra (7:18), "וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל מִבְּשַׂר זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לֹא יֵרָצֶה, הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לֹא יֵחָשֵׁב לוֹ, פִּגּוּל יִהְיֶה; וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת מִמֶּנּוּ עֲוֹנָהּ תִּשָּׂא" "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh..." - "If [the person bringing the offering plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted, it is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor..."
(d)If a person eats Pigul intentionally, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144).
(e)Parim ha'Nisrafim are not eaten. However, if a Kohen slaughters a Par ha'Nisraf with the intention of offering the Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach) outside of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, it will be disqualified as Chutz li'Mekomo.
23)[line 39]מכשיר, לדורותMACHSHIR, L'DOROS- these words stand for the topics that are in common between the death penalty of Sereifah and the paradigm of Parim ha'Nisrafim, as follows:
1.Machshir refers to the fact that both the death penalty of Sereifah and the burning of the Parim ha'Nisrafim are correct forms in which people can accomplish Mitzvos of HaSh-m ("Hechsher Mitzvasam"). The burning of Adas Korach and Benei Aharon was not in the hands of the people, and as such, there was no way for anyone to accomplish a "Hechsher Mitzvah" through their burning.
2.l'Doros refers to the fact that Sefeifah and Parim ha'Nisrafim are everlasting Mitzvos for all generations, while the burning of Adas Korach and the Benei Aharon were isolated incidents that occurred only in that generation.
24)[line 39]הנך נפישיןHANACH NEFISHIN- these (Adam, Chotei, Neshamah, Pigul) are more numerous
25)[line 44]לפיש ליה חבילי זמורותLAPISH LEI CHAVILEI ZEMOROS- add on [to the bonfire] for him [more] bundles of branches
26)[line 44]לעגלLA'AGAL- quickly
27)[line 45]וכבר היו...U'CHEVAR HAYU...- and it was when they [were already walking in procession...] (this is the a quote from a Beraisa)
28a)[last line]נפישי גמלי סביNEFISHEI GAMLEI SAVEI- there are many old camels
b)[last line]דטעיני משכי דהוגניDI'TE'INEI MASHCHEI D'HOGNEI- that are loaded with the skins of young camels
29)[line 1]לְמה תלמיד חכם דומהL'MAH TALMID CHACHAM DOMEH- to what is a Torah scholar compared [in the opinion of an Am ha'Aretz, a commoner]
30)[line 2]לקיתוןKITON- a pitcher
31)[line 2]סיפר הימנוSIPER HEIMENU- he (the Talmid Chacham) speaks with him (Devarim Shel Chulin, ordinary, non-Torah words, which have the effect of banishing the Torah from the mind of the Talmid Chacham - MAHARSHA)
32)[line 4]כיון שנשבר, שוב אין לו תקנהKEIVAN SHE'NISHBAR, SHUV EIN LO TAKANAH- (lit. once it breaks, it can never be fixed) once he (the Talmid Chacham) loses his importance in his eyes (the eyes of the Am ha'Aretz), he can never regain it
The Tzedukim (and Baitusim) were students of Tzadok (and Baitus) who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2). As a result, it is unfortunately understandable how they could have burned the Bas Kohen at the stake.
34)[line 13]הכי אמר להו, והכי אהדרו ליה?!HACHI AMAR LEHU, V'HACHI AHADRU LEI?!- This is what he said to them, and this is what they answered him (the account recorded in the Mishnah)?!
35)[line 18]ואין מביאין ראיה מן הקטןEIN MEVI'IN RE'AYAH MIN HA'KATAN- we do not bring a proof [of the occurrence of any event] from [the testimony of] a minor (or the testimony of an adult about an event that transpired when he was a minor)
36)[line 26]היו מתיזין את ראשו בסייףHAYU METIZIN ES ROSHO B'SAYIF- they would cut off his head with a sword
37)[line 27]ניוולNIVUL- disfigurement, disgrace
38)[line 28]הסדןSADAN- anvil, [executioner's] block
39)[line 28]וקוצץ בקופיץKOTZETZ B'KOFITZ- he cuts [it off] with a cleaver
40a)[line 30]"[כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ; וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ,] וּבְחֻקּוֹתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ""... UV'CHUKOSEIHEM LO SELECHU"- "[After the doings of the land of Egypt, where you dwelt, you shall not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, where I am bringing you, you shall not do,] nor shall you walk in their ordinances" (Vayikra 18:3).
b)[line 30]"וּבְחֻקּוֹתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ""UV'CHUKOSEIHEM LO SELECHU" - "nor shall you walk in their ordinances" (Vayikra 18:3) (DARCHEI HA'EMORI)
(a)Darchei ha'Emori is the term that refers to those customs of the Nochrim that have no logical foundation, but are not idol worship.
(b)Their prohibition is learned from the verse (Vayikra 18:3) "uve'Chukoseihem Lo Seileichu" (RASHI to Shabbos 67a), or from the verse (Shemos 23:24) "v'Lo Sa'aseh k'Ma'aseihem" (RASHI to Chullin 77a, RAMBAN to Shemos ibid.)
41)[line 32]שורפין על המלכיםSORFIN AL HA'MELACHIM- we burn [the objects of kings] upon [the death of] the kings
42)[line 33]"[בְּשָׁלוֹם תָּמוּת,] וּבְמִשְׂרְפוֹת אֲבוֹתֶיךָ [הַמְּלָכִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כֵּן יִשְׂרְפוּ לָךְ וְהוֹי אָדוֹן יִסְפְּדוּ לָךְ כִּי דָבָר אֲנִי דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם ה']""... UV'MISREFOS AVOSECHA..."- "[But you shall die in peace,] and just as [the beds and possessions] were burned for your fathers, [the previous kings who were before you, so shall they burn for you; and they will eulogize you, saying, 'Ah lord!' For I have pronounced the word, says HaSh-m" (Yirmeyahu 34:5).
43a)[line 37]"[וְכִי יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט, וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ,] נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם""... NAKOM YINAKEM"- "[And if a man strikes his servant, or his maid-servant, with a rod, and he dies under his hand, the death] shall surely be avenged" (Shemos 21:20).
b)[line 37]"נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם""NAKOM YINAKEM" - "he shall surely be avenged" (Shemos 21:20) (ROTZE'ACH: DIN YOM O YOMAYIM)
The Torah teaches (Shemos 21:20-21) that when a master hits his slave and kills him, it is considered as though he had killed a Jew and he is Chayav Misah (Sayif). However, if the slave does not die right away as a result of the beating, but he dies one or two days (i.e. a full twenty-four hours) later, then the master is not Chayav Misah.
44)[line 38]"וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב נוֹקֶמֶת נְקַם בְּרִית, [וְנֶאֱסַפְתֶּם אֶל עָרֵיכֶם; וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי דֶבֶר בְּתוֹכְכֶם, וְנִתַּתֶּם בְּיַד אוֹיֵב]""V'HEVEISI ALEICHEM CHEREV NOKEMES NEKAM BERIS..."- "And I will bring a sword upon you that shall avenge My covenant, [and you shall be gathered together inside your cities; I will send the pestilence among you, and you shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy]" (Vayikra 26:25).
45)[line 39]דבריז ליה מיברזD'VARIZ LEI MIVRIZ- he is stabbed [with a knife or sword]
46)[line 39]"לְפִי חָרֶב" כתיב"LEFI CHAREV" KESIV- "by the mouth of the sword" is written (Devarim 13:16, which indicates the sharp edge of the sword, and not the point. RASHI adds a proof from the verse (Tehilim 149:6), "Cherev Pifiyos," which refers to a sword sharpened on both edges, which indicates that the explanation of "Lefi" must be the edge, since there are two edges but only one point.)
47)[line 39]דעביד ליה גיסטראAVID LEI GISTERA- that he is cut into two, lengthwise (lit. he is made into a disfigured, maimed body)
48)[line 41]דקטל עבדאD'KATAL AVDA- [we find the source that] one who kills a slave [is punished specifically with Sayif]
49)[line 41]ולאו קל וחומר הוא?V'LAV KAL VA'CHOMER HU?- but is it not a Kal v'Chomer? (If the Torah teaches that one who kills a slave is punished with death by the sword (Sayif), then certainly one who kills a normal Jew should be punished with death by the sword, and not with a less severe form of death (Chenek))
50)[line 43]"וְאַתָּה תְּבַעֵר הַדָּם הַנָּקִי מִקִּרְבֶּךָ [כִּי תַעֲשֶׂה הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי ה']""V'ATAH TEVA'ER HA'DAM HA'NAKI MI'KIRBECHA..."- "And you will eradicate [the spilling of] the innocent blood from your midst [when you do that which is upright in the eyes of HaSh-m]" (Devarim 21:9).
51)[line 44]לעגלה ערופהEGLAH ARUFAH (EGLAH ARUFAH)
(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:
(b)Five elders (according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is the Halachah) of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c)The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked (see Background to Bava Metzia 30:12:b) to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d)The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).
52)[line 45]הצוארTZAVAR- the neck
53)[line 45]בקופיץKOFITZ- a cleaver
54)[line 45]וממול העורףMI'MUL OREF- on the back of the neck
55)[line 51]לאשת אחריםESHES ACHEIRIM- the wife of others (i.e. Nochrim, for whom there is no actual bond of Kidushin when they marry)