ANALYZING THE BERAISA OF BAL TE'ACHER (cont.)
Question: How do the Tana Kama and R. Shimon know that Shavuos has a seven day period of Tashlumin?
Answer: They learn it from Rabbah bar Shmuel's exegesis that the period allotted for a festival's Korbanos is identical to the time-unit which is used to count toward that festival (in this case, a week).
Question: If so, maybe Shavuos only has a one-day period for Tashlumin (since we count 49 days)?
Answer: We count toward Shavuos in weeks as well as days; and it is called "the festival of weeks."
Question: Surely the Korban Pesach cannot be brought any later than the fourteenth of Nisan (so why allot three festivals as the period afterwhich one will transgress Bal Te'acher)!
Answer (R. Chisda): The Korban Pesach shouldn't have been listed in the Beraisa.
Answer (R. Sheshes): It refers to the Korban Shelamim of Pesach.
Question: Wouldn't that be included in the category of Shelamim?
Answer: Separate categories are used for Shelamim which are due to Pesach (about which one might have thought that one transgresses Bal Te'acher with the passing of the first festival) and ordinary Shelamim.
THE SOURCE OF BAL TE'ACHER FOR THE ITEMS LISTED
Question: How do we know that there is a transgression of Bal Te'acher for all these things listed on 4a?
Answer: The Beraisa analyses a verse (Devarim 23,24),
""Ki Sidor Neder" teaches that there is Bal Te'acher for a Neder. Nedavah is learned by association, as we see in a different verse (Vayikra 7,16);
"la'Hashem Elokecha" adds Damin, Arachin, Charamin, Hekdeshos;
"Lo S'acher Leshalmo" teaches that "it, and not its substitutes" invoke the sin of Bal Te'acher (as explained later);
"Ki Darosh Yidreshenu" adds Chata'os, Ashamos, Olos, Shelamim (and by extension Bechor, Ma'aser, and Pesach);
"Hash-m Elokecha" adds Tzedakos and Ma'asros;
"Me'imach" adds Leket, Shikcha and Peyah;
"ve'Hayah Becha Chet" teaches that the sin is the person, but the Korban is not disqualified.
Question: What does "it, and not its substitutes" come to exclude from the sin of Bal Te'acher? It can't be substitutes of Olah or Shelamim, as those are indeed sacrificed, and one certainly will transgress Bal Te'acher for delaying them; and it can't be the substitute for a Chatas, as that is killed!
Answer: It refers to the substitute for a Todah as R. Chiya taught that if a Todah is mixed up with its substitute and one of them dies, there is no solution for the remaining animal.
It can't be brought as a Korban with the requisite bread, as it might be the substituted animal.
It can't be brought without the bread, as it might be the original Korban.
Question: But if it can't be brought as a Korban anyway, why do we need a verse to exclude it from Bal Te'acher?
Answer (R. Sheshes): It is really needed for the substitutes of the Olah and Shelamim that are being excluded; it refers to a case where, after two festivals have passed the animal became blemished and disqualified, and the replacement animal was not brought until after another festival had elapsed. One might think to consider them together and judge them as if three festivals have passed; the verse therefore comes to teach us that this case is not a transgression of Bal Te'acher.
Question: According to R. Meir's view that Bal Te'acher is transgressed after one festival has passed, what is the verse excluding from Bal Te'acher?
Answer (Rava): It refers to a case where in the middle of the festival, the animal became blemished and disqualified, and the replacement animal was not brought until after the festival had elapsed. One might think to consider them together and judge them as if a whole festival has passed; the verse therefore comes to teach us that this case is not a transgression of Bal Te'acher.
Question: " 've'Hayah Becha Chet' - isn't the principle that the sin is only in the person, but the Korban is not disqualified" learned from the following teaching of the Acheirim:
One might think that a Bechor which isn't sacrificed before it is a year old is disqualified like a blemished Korban!
The verse (Devarim 14,23) connects Bechor (using a Hekesh) with Ma'aser, to teach that it is not invalidated by the passage of time (and thus there is no Bal Te'acher).
Answer: One might think that only Bechor is thereby exempted from Bal Te'acher, since Bechor is not needed as an appeasement as are other Korbanos . Hence, we need "ve'Hayah Becha Chet."