(a)Why did Chazal institute the Mitzvah of Bedikas Chametz over and above that of Bitul Chametz?
(b)What sort of location does not require Bedikah?
(c)According to Beis Shamai, one needs to search two entire rows in a wine-cellar. What do Beis Hillel say to that?
(d)Is a wine-cellar a place where one takes Chametz?
(a)Chazal instituted the Mitzvah of Bedikas Chametz on the eve of the fourteenth of Nisan - to prevent the transgression of 'Bal Yera'eh' and 'Bal Yimatzei' (according to Tosfos, it is because Chazal were afraid that otherwise, one may forget and eat Chametz on Pesach).
(b)Any location where Chametz was not brought during the year does not require Bedikah.
(c)Beis Hillel says that it is the two upper-outer rows that require Bedikah.
(d)A wine-cellar from which wine is taken in small quantities is a place where Chametz is taken - because the Shamash sometimes carries a piece of bread with him when he goes to fetch wine during the meal.
(a)Initially, we think that Rav Huna explains 'Or l'Arba'ah-Asar' to mean 'the light of the fourteenth'. How does Rav Yehudah explain it?
(b)How does Rav Yehudah translate the Pasuk in Vayigash "ha'Boker Or"?
(c)According to Rav Yehudah, the Pasuk is teaching us not to travel at night. Why not?
(d)How does Rav Yehudah explain ...
1. ... the Pasuk in Shmuel "u'che'Or Boker Yizrach Shemesh"?
2. ... the Pesukim in Bereishis "Vayikra Elokim la'Or Yom"?
3. ... and "v'la'Choshech Kara Laylah"?
(a)Rav Yehudah explains 'Or l'Arba'ah-Asar' to mean 'the eve of the fourteenth'.
(b)Rav Yehudah translates the Pasuk "ha'Boker Or" - as if it would written 'ha'Boker He'ir', and the morning became light (as a verb rather than as a noun). Note: According to Rav Yehudah (and this is the Gemara's conclusion) Or can and does, mean 'light', but not 'the light of day'.
(c)One should not travel at night-time because of wild animals and robbers (according to Tosfos DH 'Yikanes' it is because of demons. See also Rashi, 8b DH 'Mahu Lemeisei').
(d)Rav Yehudah explains ...
1. ... the Pasuk "u'che'Or Boker Yizrach Shemesh" - 'and like the morning lights up in this world, Hash-m will make the sun shine for the Tzadikim in the World to Come.
2. ... "Vayikra Elokim la'Or Yom" - 'Hashem called light and placed it in charge of the day'.
3. ... and "v'la'Choshech Kara Laylah" - 'and He called darkness and placed it in charge of night'.
(a)On what grounds does the Gemara reject the original explanation that the word "la'Or" (in the Pasuk "Vayikra Elokim la'Or Yom") means 'the gradually increasing light'?
(b)Why does the Pasuk write "Haleluhu Kol Kochvei Or"? Does this mean that stars that do not shine are not required to praise Hash-m?
(c)Why do we need to know this?
(a)If "la'Or" were to mean the gradually increasing light, then "v'la'Chochesh" (in "v'la'Choshech Kara Laylah") would also have to mean 'and to the gradually increasing darkness He called night'. But that is impossible, since Chazal have already taught us that it is not night-time until it is completely dark i.e. when the stars come out.
(b)In fact, all the Heavenly bodies are obligated to praise Hash-m, whether they shine or not. The reason the Torah writes "Haleluhu Kol Kochvei Or" - is to teach us that the light shed by the stars is also called light (This is important in the context of someone who makes a Neder not to derive benefit from light).
(c)We know that all the Heavenly bodies are obligated to praise Hash-m from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Haleluhu Kol Tzeva'kav".
(a)How do we initially explain the Pasuk in Iyov "la'Or Yakum Rotzei'ach Yiktal Ani v'Evyon, uva'Laylah Yehi ka'Ganav"?
(b)How does Rav Yehudah explain it?
(c)Whom may one not kill even if he breaks in, in the middle of the night, and why is that?
(a)We initially explain the Pasuk "la'Or Yakum Rotzei'ach, Yiktal Ani v'Evyon, uva'Laylah Yehi ka'Ganav" to mean - that by the light of day, the murderer attacks the poor and needy and kills them, and by night he breaks into the houses like a thief.
(b)Rav Yehudah explain it to mean - that if it is clear to you like the light, that the thief who is breaking into your house is prepared to kill, then he is a murderer, and you are permitted to kill him to save yourself; but should you harbor doubts like the night-time, then you must treat him like a thief, and killing him is prohibited.
(c)One is forbidden to kill one's father, even if he breaks in like a thief - because that is the case of doubt mentioned in the previous question.
(a)How does Rav Yehudah explain the Pasuk ...
1. ... in Iyov "Yechshechu Kochvei Nishpo, Yekav l'Or va'Ayin"?
2. ... in Tehilim "Va'Omar Ach Choshech Yeshufeni v'Laylah Or Ba'adeni"?
(b)What does the Gemara prove from Rebbi Yehudah, who says in a Mishnah later "Bodkin Or Arba'ah-Asar, u've'Arba'ah-Asar Shachris u've'Sha'as ha'Bi'ur"?
(a)Rav Yehudah explains the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Yechshechu Kochvei Nishpo, Yekav l'Or va'Ayin" - (said by Iyov in the form of a self-curse) to mean: 'May I hope for the light, but not find it'.
2. ... "Va'Omar Ach Choshech Yeshufeni v'Laylah Or Ba'adeni" - (said by David Hamelech, after he discovered that his sin with Bas- Sheva had been forgiven) 'At first I thought that darkness would envelop me in the World to Come (which is compared to the day); now even This World (which is compared to night) has become light'.
(b)Rebbi Yehudah says in a Mishnah later "Bodkin Or Arba'ah-Asar u've'Arba'ah-Asar Shachris u've'Sha'as ha'Bi'ur" - clearly indicating that 'Or' means the eve of, and not the morning.
(a)In a Beraisa, Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov forbids one to do work on the fourteenth of Nisan 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or'. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?
(b)If 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or' of Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov means from sunrise, then why did he query Rebbi Yehudah regarding a precedent on permitting part of a day (between dawn-break and sunrise) and forbidding the rest, when he might just as well query himself in exactly the same way (since he permits working during the night, but forbids the day)?
(c)Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov's precedent is his own opinion with regard to fasting on one of the minor fasts. What does Rebbi Shimon say in that case?
(a)Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov forbids one to do work on the fourteenth of Nisan 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or'; Rebbi Yehudah says from sun-rise.
(b)Even if 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or' of Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov would mean from dawn-break, there would be no problem (as to why he permits the night and forbids the day) - since for that, we have a precedent, in the Dinim of Ta'anis Tzibur, which only begins at dawn-break.
(c)According to Rebbi Shimon, a Ta'anis Tzibur begins from the time the cock crows in the morning.
(a)Rebbi Yehudah answers that according to his opinion too, a precedent exists by the Isur of eating Chametz. What is the Din there, and how is that a precedent?
(b)Why does Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov not consider that a precedent?
(c)Rebbi Yehudah then gives as a precedent, the two hours which the Rabanan added to the Torah's Shi'ur. On what grounds does Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov reject that proof, too?
(a)Rebbi Yehudah answers that we have a precedent for part of the day being permitted and part being forbidden - by Chametz, which is permitted until mid-day and forbidden after that.
(b)Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov counters - that one cannot bring Chametz (d'Oraysa) as a precedent for the Rabbinical prohibition of not doing work on Erev Pesach.
(c)The two hours which the Rabanan added to the Torah's Shi'ur are also no precedent for Melachah, which is purely d'Rabanan, whereas the extra two hours of Achilas Chametz are really an extension of the Torah's prohibition (i.e. to safeguard it).
(a)For which months would they light the torches, to announce to the people far from Yerushalayim when Rosh Chodesh had been proclaimed?
(b)When did they used to light them?
(c)What does the Gemara prove from 'le'Or Iburo'?
(d)Why is there no disproof for Rav Yehudah from the Beraisa 'Hayah Omed Kol ha'Laylah u'Makriv Al ha'Mizbe'ach l'Orah Ta'un Kidush' - from which we can see that Orah means light?
(a)They would only light the torches when the new moon was seen on the thirtieth of the month (but not on the thirty-first).
(b)The torches would be lit on the following night, the thirty-first. Consequently, whenever there were no torches, the people would know that the previous month had been a full one.
(c)The Gemara proves from 'le'Or Iburo' - that 'Or' means 'the eve of'.
(d)There no disproof for Rav Yehudah from the Beraisa 'Hayah Omed Kol ha'Laylah u'Makriv Al ha'Mizbe'ach l'Orah Ta'un Kidush' - because he too, agrees, that 'Orah' means 'day'; it is 'Or' which means 'night'.