MUST MATZAH BE EATEN AT THE END?
Support (Beraisa): One may fill his stomach with the following [on Pesach night] as long as he eats a k'Zayis of [proper] Matzah at the end (these are not "Lechem Oni") - spongy Matzah, Matzah fried in honey and oil, and wafers made from a thin dough.
Inference: One must eat Matzah at the end - but if one ate Matzah [for the Mitzvah] at the beginning, he may not eat [these or anything else] afterwards!
Rejection: No - the Beraisa teaches a bigger Chidush:
Had it permitted these [invalid] Matzos after eating [valid] Matzah with appetite, one might have thought that he may not eat these first, lest eating Matzas Mitzvah will be Achilah Gasah (gorging himself) - therefore the Beraisa permits even to eat them first.
Version #2 - Mar Zutra - (Shmuel): We may have Afikoman after Matzah.
Support (Mishnah): We may not have Afikoman after Pesach.
Inference: It is forbidden after Pesach, but it is permitted after Matzah.
Answer: No - the Mishnah teaches a bigger Chidush:
Dessert is forbidden not only after Matzah, whose taste is not strong - rather, it is forbidden even after Pesach, whose taste is strong!
Question (Beraisa): One may fill his stomach with spongy Matzah, Matzah fried in honey and oil, and wafers made from a thin dough, as long he eats a k'Zayis of Matzah at the end.
Inference: One must eat Matzah at the end - but if one ate Matzah at the beginning, he may not eat afterwards!
Rejection: No - the Beraisa teaches a bigger Chidush:
Had it permitted eating these after Matzah, one might have thought that he may not eat them first, lest he eat Matzah Achilah Gasah - the Beraisa permits even to eat them first.
IS MATZAH MID'ORAISA NOWADAYS?
(Rava): Nowadays Matzah is a Mitzvah mid'Oraisa; Maror is only mid'Rabanan.
Question: Surely, Maror is mid'Rabanan because "Al Matzos u'Morerim Yochluhu" - it is mid'Oraisa only when there is Korban Pesach;
The same applies to Matzah!
Answer: Another verse teaches "Ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos" (in any case).
(Rav Acha bar Yakov): Both of them are mid'Rabanan today.
Question: But it says "Ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos"!
Answer: That obligates a Tamei or Derech Rechokah [when the Mikdash stands] to eat Matzah;
One might have thought that since they do not eat Pesach, they need not eat Matzah and Maror - the verse teaches that this is not so. (Ran - Maror is mentioned along with Matzah, but really, [mid'Oraisa] the only Mitzvah to eat Maror is with Pesach.)
Rava does not need a verse for a Tamei or Derech Rechokah - he holds that there is no reason to exempt them more than an Arel or Ben Nechar:
"V'Chol Arel Lo Yochal Bo" - he may not eat it (Pesach), but he eats Matzah and Maror. (It also says "V'Chol Ben Nechar Lo Yochal Bo.")
Rav Acha holds that the Torah needs to teach about both of them. (Had it only taught Arel and Ben Nechar, we would have said that they eat Matzah because they will not bring Pesach Sheni - but Tamei and Derech Rechokah, who will bring Pesach Sheni, will eat Matzah then; had it only written "Ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos," we would have said that this refers to Arel and Ben Nechar for the above reason.)
Support (for Rava - Beraisa): "Sheshes Yomim Tochal Matzos uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Atzeres" - just like eating Matzah on the seventh day is Reshus (the Torah did not command about it), also six days [and a half, i.e. after the first night];
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: This is a matter which was part of a Kelal ("Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Matzos"), and the Torah taught about it by itself - the rule is, in every such case we learn to the entire Kelal.
Suggestion: Perhaps even the first night is Reshus!
Rejection: "Al Matzos u'Merorim Yochluhu."
Question: Perhaps that is only when the Mikdash stands - what is the source when the Mikdash does not stand?
Answer: "Ba'Erev Tochal Matzos" - it is an obligation.
MAY ONE RESUME EATING AFTER SLEEPING?
(Mishnah): If some of the Chaburah slept, they may resume to eat [Pesach];
If the entire Chaburah slept, they may not resume to eat (it would look like eating Pesach in two places).
R. Yosi says, if they (some of the Chaburah) dozed, they may eat; if they slept, they may not eat.
Pesach is Metamei the hands after midnight;
Pigul and Nosar are Metamei hands.
(Gemara) Question: R. Yosi permits eating if they dozed, but not if they slept - what is considered dozing?
Answer (Rav Ashi): He is half asleep, half awake; if one calls to him, he responds, but cannot give an answer which requires thought; if one reminds him [that he heard this], he remembers (Rashi Ta'anis 12B).
Rabah dozed [after beginning to eat Matzas Mitzvah]; Abaye mentioned this.
Rabah: The Mishnah says that if they dozed, they may eat - I only dozed.
THE LAST TIME TO EAT PESACH
(Mishnah): Pesach is Metamei the hands after midnight.
Inference: After midnight it is Nosar.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): It is R. Elazar ben Azaryah:
(Beraisa - R. Elazar ben Azaryah): It says "V'Ochlu Es ha'Basar ba'Laylah ha'Zeh," and "V'Ovarti v'Eretz Mitzrayim ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" - just like the firstborn were killed at midnight, also the allotted time to eat Pesach is [until] midnight;
R. Akiva says, Pesach is eaten "b'Chipazon" (in haste) - until the time of haste (dawn, when Mitzrayim compelled Yisrael to leave.)
Question: If so, it did not need to say "ba'Laylah"!?
Answer: One might have thought that it may be eaten during the day like other Kodshim - "ba'Laylah" teaches that it may be eaten only at night.
Question: [According to R. Elazar, "ha'Zeh" (in "V'Ochlu...") is needed for the Gezerah Shavah - but] according to R. Akiva, what do we learn from "ha'Zeh"?
Answer: It is needed to forbid eating Pesach on a second night;
One might have thought, since Pesach is Kodshim Kalim like Shelamim, just like Shelamim may be eaten for two days and a night, [since the time to eat Pesach begins at night], nights of Pesach are like days of Shelamim, and it may be eaten for two nights and a day!
"Ha'Zeh" teaches that it is eaten for only one night.
R. Elazar says, we already know this from "V'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker."
R. Akiva says, we could have understood that to refer to the second morning.
R. Elazar says, whenever it says "Boker," it refers to the next morning.
(Rava): Nowadays, according to R. Elazar, if someone ate Matzah after midnight, he was not Yotzei.
Objection: This is obvious - since Matzah is Hukash (equated) to Pesach, it is like Pesach!
Answer: One might have thought that the Torah uprooted it from the Hekesh [by commanding to eat Matzah even when there is no Pesach] - Rava teaches that this is not so, rather, the Mitzvah to eat Matzah nowadays is like when there is Pesach.