THINGS HASH-M DOES NOT PUBLICIZE
Question: What does it mean "Veli'Mchaseh Asik"?
Version #1 - Answer: This is one who covers things that Asik Yomin (the Ancient One, i.e. Hash-m) covers up, i.e. secrets of Torah (e.g. explanations of Hash-m's name, which may be revealed only to people with great Yir'as Shomayim).
Version #2 - Answer: This is one who reveals things that Hash-m covers up, i.e. Ta'amei Torah (reasons for Mitzvos)
(Rav Kahana) Question: How do we explain "La'Mnatze'ach Mizmor l'David"? (Hash-m causes others to win. The reference to Tehilim 4 is wrong, it should say Tehilim 13 (or 19 or 20...).)
Answer: Sing to the One who is happy when He is 'defeated'!
Hash-m's ways are unlike the ways of people - people are sad when they are defeated, but Hash-m is happy when He is 'defeated' - "Va'Yomer Lehashmidem Lulei Moshe Vechiro Omad ba'Peretz Lefanav."
(Rav Kahana or Reish Lakish) Question: It says "Vi'Dei Adam mi'Tachas Kanfeihem" - it is written "Yado"!
Answer: This refers to Hash-m's hand, it is under the wings of the Chayos (a class of angels), in order to receive Teshuvah of penitents out of 'sight' of Midas ha'Din (the attribute of judgment, which would protest).
THE WEALTH OF THE WORLD
(Rav Yehudah): Yosef gathered all gold and silver of the world to Mitzrayim - "Va'Ylaket Yosef Es Kol ha'Kesef ha'Nimtza;"
Question: The verse only mentions the money "V'Eretz Mitzrayim uv'Eretz Kena'an" - what is the source for money elsewhere?
Answer: "V'Chol ha'Aretz Ba'u Mitzraymah."
When Yisrael left Mitzrayim, they took it with them - "Va'Ynatzlu Es Mitzrayim;"
(Rav Asi): Yisrael emptied out Mitzrayim like a Metzudah (trap) without grain (to attract birds);
(Reish Lakish): They emptied Mitzrayim like the Metzulah (depths) is empty of fish.
All the wealth was with Yisrael, until the days of Rechav'am, when Shishak Melech Mitzrayim took it back - "...Alah Shishak...; Va'Yikach Es Otzros Beis Hash-m...v'Es Otzros Beis ha'Melech;" Zorach Melech Kush took it from Shishak; Asa [Melech Yehudah] took it from Zorach, and sent it to Hadrimon [Melech Aram, to induce him to help Asa in his war with Basha Melech Yisrael];
The nation of Amon took it from Hadrimon, Yehoshafat [Melech Yehudah] took it from Amon - it was in Yehudah until the days of Achaz. Sancheriv took it from Achaz, and Chizkiyahu took it from Sancheriv [when Sancheriv came to attack Yerushalayim and Hash-m killed his massive army];
It was in Yehudah until Bavel took it from Tzidkiyahu [at the time of the Churban]; the Persians took it from Bavel, the Yevanim (Greeks) took it from them, and Romi took it from Yavan; today it is still in Romi.
(Rav Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): Yosef hid three treasures in Mitzrayim - one was revealed to Korach, one to Antoninus (the Roman emperor who learned from Rebbi), and one is intact for Tzadikim in the future.
(Reish Lakish): "Osher Shamur li'V'alav l'Ra'aso" - this refers to Korach's wealth:
(R. Elazar): "V'Es Kol ha'Yakum Asher b'Ragleihem" - this refers to a person's money, which stands him on his feet.
(R. Levi): Three hundred mules were needed to carry the keys to Korach's treasure houses, even though the keys and locks were leather [and very light].
THE LAST VERSES OF HALLEL
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): "David said Odcha Ki Anisani...;" Yishai said "Even Ma'asu ha'Bonim Haysah l'Rosh Pinah" (no one expected David to be anointed); his brothers said "Me'Es Hash-m Haysah Zos...;" Shmuel said "Zeh ha'Yom Asah Hash-m...;"
"His brothers said Ana Hash-m Hoshi'ah Na;" David said "Ana Hash-m Hatzlichah Na;" Yishai said "Baruch ha'Ba b'Shem Hash-m;" Shmuel said "Berachnuchem mi'Beis Hash-m;"
All of them said "Kel Hash-m va'Ya'er Lanu;" Shmuel said "Isru Chag ba'Avosim...;" David said "Keli Atah v'Odeka;" all of them said "Elokai Aromemeka."
(Beraisa): One should follow the local custom, whether it is to say each verse of Hallel twice, or to say it only once, and whether or not to bless afterwards.
(Abaye): This refers only to afterwards, but it is a Mitzvah to bless beforehand:
(Rav Yehudah): On all Mitzvos we bless Over (before) doing them.
Question: How do we know that 'Over' means before?
Answer #1 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): "Va'Yaratz Achima'atz va'Ya'avor Es ha'Kushi."
Answer #2 (Abaye): "V'Hu Avar Lifneihem."
Answer #3: "Va'Ya'avor Malkam Lifneihem va'Shem b'Rosham."
(Beraisa): Rebbi doubled part [after "Baruch ha'Ba..."]; R. Elazar ben Parta added.
Question: What did he add?
Answer (Abaye): He doubled more, starting from "Odcha Ki Anisani."
(Rav Avira) Question: What do we learn from "Va'Yigdal ha'Yeled va'Yigamel"?
Answer: In the future Hash-m will make a feast for Tzadikim on the day that Yigamel (He will bestow) Chesed to Yitzchak's descendants. After the meal, they offer a cup to Avraham [to lead Birkas ha'Mazon] - he declines because [he feels unworthy, since] he fathered Yishmael;
They offer it to Yitzchak - he declines because he fathered Esav; Yakov declines because he married two sisters in each other's lifetime, which would later be forbidden to Yisrael;
Moshe declines because he did not merit to enter Eretz Yisrael; even after his death; Yehoshua declines because he did not merit to have a son;
"Yehoshua bin Nun" - the lineage stops here, because he did not have a son.
They offer it to David - he accepts - 'it is fitting for me to bless - "Kos Yeshu'os Esa uv'Shem Hash-m Ekra." (Netzach Yisrael 33 - this is not a physical meal, rather, reward given corresponding to Yisrael's suffering in exile. The first five decline because a shortcoming in them caused some of this suffering (marrying two sisters led to the split of Malchus Yisrael); this does not apply to David, rather, Moshi'ach ben David will wipe out Esav!)
THE LAST FOOD EATEN ON PESACH NIGHT
(Mishnah): We may not have Afikoman after [eating the] Pesach.
(Gemara) Question: What is Afikoman? (Afik means to take out.)
Answer #1 (Rav): [After finishing Pesach] one may not go to [eat anything in] another Chaburah [lest he eat Pesach in a second Chaburah - the Mishnah says, one may not clear his Kelim to another Chaburah].
Answer #2 (Shmuel): It is [dessert, e.g.] for me mushrooms, or for Rav chicks. (The Mishnah says, we do not take out sweet things.)
(R. Chanina bar Shilo and R. Yochanan): It is dates, parched grain and nuts (they hold like Shmuel, just they are used to different desserts).
Version #1 (Shmuel): [Nowadays, we eat Matzah to commemorate the Pesach;] we may not have Afikoman after [this] Matzah.
Question (Mishnah): We may not have Afikoman after Pesach.
Inference: We may not have Afikoman after Pesach, but it is permitted after Matzah.
Answer: No - the Mishnah verse teaches a bigger Chidush:
Matzah's taste is not so strong, so we may not have dessert after it [for then the taste of Matzah would not remain in our mouths];
But Pesach's taste is strong, we would have thought that one may have dessert after it for its taste would remain in our mouths - the Mishnah teaches that this is not so.