1)

SPECIES KOSHER FOR MAROR

(a)

(Mishnah): One may fulfill the Mitzvah of Maror with any of the following Yerakos (vegetables) - Chazeres, Tamcha, Charchavina, Ulshin, and Maror (below we give possible translations of them);

(b)

He is Yotzei whether they are moist or dry, but not if they were pickled (in vinegar), Shelukim (thoroughly cooked) or cooked.

(c)

They all join to comprise the Shi'ur of a k'Zayis;

(d)

One is Yotzei with the stalks;

(e)

One is Yotzei with Demai, Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was taken, or Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that was redeemed;

(f)

(Gemara): Chazeres is [Romaine] lettuce; Ulshin is endives.

(g)

(Rabah bar bar Chanah): Tamcha is horseradish.

(h)

(Reish Lakish): Charchavina is tendrils (an ivy that grows around date trees).

(i)

Maror is burdock.

(j)

(Bar Kapara - Beraisa): One may fulfill the Mitzvah with any of the following Yerakos - endives, horseradish, palm-ivy, tendrils, and lettuce.

(k)

R. Yehudah says, one is Yotzei even with endives of the field, garden endives and lettuce.

1.

Question: The first Tana already taught [plain endives, which are] garden endives and lettuce!

2.

Answer: R. Yehudah means that endives of the field are [valid for Maror] like garden endives and lettuce.

(l)

R. Meir says, one is Yotzei even with Asvas, Tura, and Mar Yeru'ar (types of bitter herbs);

(m)

R. Yosi says, Asvas, and Tura are the same; Mar is Yeru'ar.

(n)

(D'Vei Shmuel - Beraisa): One may fulfill the Mitzvah with any of the following Yerakos - lettuce, endives, horseradish, palm-ivy, garden ivy and Hirdufnin (wormwood?);

1.

R. Yehudah says, one is Yotzei even with garden lettuce and wild lettuce.

2.

R. Ila'a says, R. Eliezer says that one is Yotzei with Arkavlin (another species of palm-ivy?);

3.

R. Ila'a: I did not find any other Talmid of his who heard this from R. Eliezer; R. Eliezer ben Yakov agreed with it.

4.

R. Yehudah says, anything with sap [that exudes when it is cut may be used].

5.

R. Yochanan ben Brokah says, anything [not green, rather,] pale [may be used];

6.

Others say, every bitter vegetable that has sap and is pale [may be used].

(o)

(R. Yochanan): From all of these Tana'im we find that every bitter vegetable [Kosher for Maror] has sap and is pale. (Mishnah Berurah identifies only lettuce and horseradish, and says that the Shulchan Aruch itself was unsure about the current names of the first four. If one cannot obtain one of the five, he should eat a bitter vegetable with sap and whitish leaves, but should not bless 'Al Achilas Maror'.)

(p)

(Rav Huna): The Halachah follows Others.

(q)

Rav Acha brei d'Rava would strive to use horseradish.

(r)

Ravina: Do you do so because it is the most bitter? Our Mishnah and d'Vei Shmuel's Beraisa list Chazeres first, and R. Oshaya said that the Mitzvah [l'Chatchilah] is with Chazeres;

1.

(Rava): Chazeres is Chasa (lettuce).

2.

Question: Why is it called Chasa?

3.

Answer: Hash-m was Chas (had mercy) on Yisrael.

(s)

There is another reason to prefer lettuce!

1.

(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): A verse ["Va'Ymareru Es Chayeihem"] alludes to the Mitzriyim like Maror to teach that just like Maror is initially soft and is hard in the end, also the Mitzriyim were initially soft and hard in the end. (Rashi - at first, they paid us to work; Bamidbar Rabah 15:20 - one day Paro himself made bricks, inspiring Benei Yisrael to work with all their strength - the Mitzriyim made that their daily quota. Lettuce is initially soft, and if left too long in the ground it becomes hard.)

(t)

Rav Acha: I retract [from striving to use horseradish].

2)

SPECIES KOSHER FOR MAROR (cont.)

(a)

Question (Rav Rechumi): What is the source that Maror is a Yerek? Perhaps it is Marirta (bile) of Kufya (a certain fish)!

(b)

Answer (Abaye): Maror must be like Matzah (the verse equates them), which [comes from grain, which] grows from the ground.

(c)

Question: Perhaps it is Hirduf (the bitter tree Moshe used to sweeten the water at Marah)!

(d)

Answer: Presumably, it is like Matzah, which is [made from] Zera'im (i.e. not from tree; technically, Maror is Yerek, which we shall distinguish from Zera'im).

(e)

Question: Perhaps it is Harzifu (a seed that is poisonous to animals; it is not normally eaten)!

(f)

Answer: Presumably, it is like Matzah, which can be bought with Ma'aser money.

(g)

Question (Rabah bar Rav Chanin): We should say that 'Maror' connotes only one [species]!

(h)

Answer (Abaye): It says "Merorim."

(i)

Question: We should say that "Merorim" connotes only two [species]!

(j)

Answer: Presumably, it is like Matzah, which can be from several different species.

(k)

(Rav): All Yerakos that Chachamim were Machshir for Maror may be planted together in one patch.

(l)

This teaches that they are not Kil'ayim with each other.

(m)

Question (Rava - Mishnah): The following [pairs] are not Kil'ayim with each other - lettuce and wild lettuce, endives and wild endives, leeks and wild leeks, coriander and wild coriander, mustard and Mitzri mustard, Mitzri gourd and pumpkin.

1.

Inference: Lettuce and wild lettuce are not Kil'ayim with each other - but lettuce and endives are!

2.

Suggestion: Perhaps all the species in the Mishnah are permitted together [not just each pair]!

3.

Rejection: Rav taught that the Mishnah discusses pairs one may plant together.

(n)

Answer: Rav meant that all the Yerakos Kosher for Maror may be planted in one patch k'Halachah [keeping the proper distance between them].

(o)

Question: We already learn this from a Mishnah!

39b----------------------------------------39b

1.

(Mishnah): Five kinds of seeds may be planted in a patch six by six Tefachim, i.e. one on each other the four sides, and one in the middle.

(p)

Answer #1: One might have thought that the Mishnah permits for Zera'im (Rambam - species planted in order to eat the seeds, i.e. grain and legumes) but not for Yerakos (vegetables planted in order to eat the growth, not the seeds) - Rav teaches that this is not so.

(q)

Objection: This implies that Yerakos nurture more [from the sides and must be spaced out more] than Zera'im - but this is not true!

1.

(Mishnah): One may not plant different Zera'im in a patch [because they nurture from the sides], but one may plant [five] kinds of Yerakos in a patch.

(r)

Answer #2: One might have thought that the species of Maror are Zera'im, and it is forbidden to plant them in one patch - Rav teaches that this is not so.

(s)

Objection: We could not have thought that they are Zera'im - the Mishnah and the Beraisos of Bar Kapara and Shmuel explicitly call them Yerakos!

(t)

Correction: Rather, one might have thought that more room must be left around Chazeres, because it becomes hard;

1.

(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): If a cabbage stalk hardened [it sends out roots in all directions], one must leave Beis Rova (a square whose side is more than 10 Amos) in every direction free [of other species].

2.

One might have thought that likewise, more room must be left for Chazeres - Rav teaches that this is not so.

3)

CONDITIONS TO FULFILL THE MITZVAH

(a)

(Mishnah): He is Yotzei whether they are moist or dry.

(b)

(Rav Chisda): This applies to the stalks (they never lose their taste through drying up) - but one is Yotzei with the leaves only if they are moist.

(c)

Question: The Seifa says that one is Yotzei with the stalks - this implies that the Reisha discusses the leaves!

(d)

Answer: No, the Seifa explains the Reisha:

1.

We said that he is Yotzei whether they are moist or dry - this applies to the stalks.

(e)

Question (Beraisa - R. Meir): One is Yotzei with them or their stalks, whether they are moist or dry;

1.

Chachamim say, one is Yotzei with them only if they are moist. (Rav Chisda is not like either Tana - neither distinguishes the stalks from the leaves!)

2.

All agree that one is Yotzei with them even if they are wilted, but not if they were pickled, Shelukim or cooked;

3.

The general rule is - one is Yotzei with them only if they have the taste of Maror.

(f)

Answer: When R. Meir says 'whether they are moist or dry', he refers only to the stalks (Rav Chisda holds like R. Meir).

(g)

(Beraisa): One is not Yotzei with them if they are wilted;

(h)

R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok says, one is Yotzei with them.

(i)

Question (Rami bar Chama): May one be Yotzei with Maror of Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim?

1.

We do not ask according to R. Akiva - he holds that one is Yotzei with Matzah of Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim, even though it (Ma'aser of grain) is mid'Oraisa - all the more so one is Yotzei with Maror [since Ma'aser of Yerek is only] mid'Rabanan!

2.

We ask according to R. Yosi ha'Gelili - he holds that one is not Yotzei with Matzah, for it is mid'Oraisa - but perhaps one is Yotzei with Maror, which is only mid'Rabanan;

i.

Or, perhaps all mid'Rabanan enactments are made similar to mid'Oraisa!

(j)

Answer (Rava): Presumably, Matzah and Maror [are equated to each other, therefore one is not Yotzei with Maror of Ma'aser, for it cannot be eaten anywhere].

4)

THINGS THAT WILL NOT BECOME CHAMETZ

(a)

(Mishnah): [During Pesach] One may not soak bran for chickens, but one may Cholet (put it in or pour over it boiling water - this impedes Chimutz, like baking. Nowadays we do not do so, for we are so proficient or zealous.)

(b)

A woman may not soak bran that she takes to the bathhouse [to rub on her skin], but she may rub dry bran on her skin (Rosh - sweat does not Mechametz; Maharam Chalavah - a few drops of water will not Mechametz).

(c)

One may not chew wheat and put it on a wound, for it will become Chametz.

(d)

(Gemara - Beraisa): The following do not become Chametz - something that was already baked [as Matzah], cooked, or Chalut in boiling water.

(e)

Question: Something cooked will become Chametz [while the water is lukewarm,] before it gets cooked!

(f)

Answer (Rav Papa): The Mishnah refers to something baked and then cooked.

(g)

(Beraisa - R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): If water dripped onto flour, even the entire day, it will not become Chametz. (We do not discuss standard [bleached] flour sold in stores nowadays, which is already Chametz.)

(h)

(Rav Papa): This is only if the drops fall in rapid succession.

(i)

(D'Vei R. Shila): Vatika (a tart) is permitted.

(j)

Question (Beraisa): It is forbidden.

(k)

Answer: If it is made with oil and salt it is permitted [it will not become Chametz], if it is made with water it is forbidden.

(l)

(Mar Zutra): [Even] flour that was dried and parched may not be used to thicken a Tavshil (cooked food) - perhaps it was not fully parched and it can become Chametz.

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