[77a - 54 lines; 77b - 48 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 77a [line 14]:
The word "Keva'o Mo'ed" קבעו מועד
Should be "Kava Mo'ed" קבע מועד
This is the Girsa in Menachos 72b and in Toras Kohanim (RASHASH). It is also the Girsa in the manuscripts (Dikdukei Sofrim #40).
 Gemara 77b [line 27]:
The words "Nitme'u Sheyareha Avdu Sheyareha" נטמאו שיריה אבדו שיריה
should be "Nitme'u Sheyareha Nisrefu Sheyareha Avdu Sheyareha" נטמאו שיריה נשרפו שיריה עבדו שיריה
This is the Girsa of the Mishnah in Menachos 26a and Dikdukei Sofrim #50.
1)[line 4]תמוז דהאי שתא מלויי מליוהTAMUZ D'HAI SHATA MELUYEI MALYUHA- Tamuz of that year (following Yetzi'as Mitzrayim) had thirty days (lit. "they filled it," or made it a full month)
2)[line 5]"קרא עלי מועד לשבור בחורי""KARA ALAI MO'ED LISHBOR BACHURAI"- "He set a time against me to crush my young men" (Eichah 1:15) - Abaye interprets this verse as follows: "He proclaimed a festival (the added 30th day of Tamuz) in order to crush my young of men." It was the addition of this day that caused the spies' return on the inauspicious 9th of Av. The Gemara proves from this interpretation that Rosh Chodesh is referred to as a Mo'ed.
3a)[line 20]תדירTADIR- offered every day
b)[line 20]וכלילKALIL- completely burned [on the Mizbe'ach (with the exception of its hide)]
4)[line 29]דאלימיD'ALIMEI- that are strong
5)[line 30]סברוהSAVRUHA- [the Talmidim in the Yeshiva] were under the impression
6)[line 30]טומאה דחויה היא בציבורTUM'AH DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR (TUM'AS HA'MES HUTRAH HI B'TZIBUR / DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR)
(a)The Torah permits the offering of communal sacrifices "b'Tum'ah." This means that if the Kohanim, the Klei Shares (vessels in the Beis ha'Mikdash), or the meat or blood of the Korban itself have become Tamei, the Korban may still be offered. Included in this category are the Korbenos Temidim and Musafim of Shabbos and Yom Tov, communal Menachos such as the Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem, and all of the Korbanos offered along with these Menachos (see Background to 76:29:b and 30:b).
(b)Although the offering of the Korban Pesach is an obligation incumbent on every individual, it is classified as a Korban Tzibur due to that which a large group of people ("Kenufya") offer it together at one time during the festival (Yoma 51a). It therefore may be offered b'Tum'ah as well. Regarding the Korban Pesach, the term "b'Tum'ah" includes the scenario in which all or most of Klal Yisrael are Tamei along with the other situations mentioned above. If this should occur, even those who are Tehorim may offer their Korban Pesach b'Tum'ah (Pesachim 79a). The Gemara derives this Halachah from one of several sources (Pesachim 66b, 77a; see also Insights to Pesachim 79:1).
(c)The Tana'im disagree as to whether the Tum'ah is Hutrah (permitted) or merely Dechuyah (pushed aside) b'Tzibur (Pesachim 77a, Yoma 7b). The Gemara in Yoma explains that this Machlokes does not apply to a case in which some Kohanim in the Mikdash are Teme'im and others are Tehorim; all opinions maintain that only the Tehorim may perform the Avodah. The dispute only exists when all of the Kohanim in the Beis Av (the group of Kohanim who perform the Avodah on a given day) are Teme'im. One opinion maintains that there is no prohibition whatsoever against offering Korbenos Tzibur b'Tum'ah ("Hutrah"), and therefore the Kohanim who are Tamei may perform the Avodah. The other view rules that if there are Kohanim from other Batei Avos who are Tahor, they should be sought for the Avodah. Since the prohibition against offering Korbenos Tzibur b'Tum'ah is pushed aside ("Dechuyah") only when necessary, it is still in force when other solutions are possible.
(d)Another practical difference arising from this dispute is whether or not a Korban Tzibur whose blood, meat, or fats have become Tamei may only be offered in conjunction with the added appeasement of the Tzitz ("Tzitz Meratzeh"; see below, entry #8). According to the opinion of Tum'ah Dechuyah Hi b'Tzibur, the Korban may not be offered unless the Tzitz is there to offset the effects of the Tum'ah (see Insights).
7)[line 31]ציץTZITZ- the thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38)
8)[line 31]ציץ לרצותTZITZ LERATZOS (TZITZ MERATZEH)
(a)If a Korban or any part of a Korban becomes Tamei, it is unfit to be offered. Therefore, if the blood or fats of a Korban become Tamei before they are dashed (Zerikas ha'Dam) or burned (Hekter Chalavim) upon the Mizbe'ach, the Zerikah may not be performed and the meat is not allowed to be eaten. Another application of this law is that if the Emurim (entrails) or any other part of a Korban offered on the Mizbe'ach become Teme'im, the Kohanim may no longer offer them on the Mizbe'ach. If the meat becomes Tamei before the Zerikas ha'Dam is performed, Rebbi Eliezer allows the Zerikah to be performed as long as the Dam is Tahor (for every Korban other than the Korban Pesach), while Rebbi Yehoshua rules that if all of the meat and Chelev of a Korban become Tamei or otherwise unfit before Zerikas ha'Dam, it is prohibited to perform Zerikas ha'Dam (77b).
(b)There is a verse which states regarding the Tzitz (see previous entry), "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). Chazal derive from these words that the presence of the Tzitz transforms an Avodah which would otherwise be rejected into one which is acceptable. What exactly this means is the subject of a Machlokes. Rebbi Eliezer understands it to be referring to a case in which the meat becomes Tamei before the Zerikas ha'Dam is performed. The Tzitz allows the meat, which is Tamei, to be as if it was Tahor — not that one may eat it, but it is no longer Hekdesh, just as if one was allowed to eat it. Additionally, one will incur Kares if he eats it after it became Pigul, even though such Kares does not apply when there is an additional Pesul in the meat. Additionally, if blood or fats which became Tamei were dashed upon the Mizbe'ach, the effect of the Tzitz causes it to be accepted. According to Rebbi Yehoshua, the Ritzuy of the Tzitz only takes effect if the blood was dashed upon the Mizbe'ach when a part of the Korban is Tamei. Although one may not do so, if he did, then the Korban is accepted and its owner need not offer an additional Korban in its stead. (Whether Rebbi Yehoshua disagrees with Rebbi Eliezer on a d'Oraisa level or a d'Rabanan level is the subject of a Machlokes Rishonim; see Insights to Pesachim 78:1.)
(c)Whether the appeasing attribute of the Tzitz is necessary for communal Korbanos or only private sacrifices depends on the Machlokes of whether Tum'ah is Hutrah or Dechuyah b'Tzibur (see above, entry #6).
(d)There is a disagreement between the Tana'im regarding this attribute of the Tzitz. Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Tzitz must be upon the forehead of the Kohen Gadol at the time when the Korban became Tamei in order to render the Korban acceptable. Rebbi Shimon maintains that the mere existence of the Tzitz — even if the Kohen Gadol is not wearing it — is Meratzeh.
9)[line 34]מצחוMITZCHO- his (the Kohen Gadol's) forehead
10)[line 37]כהן גדול ביום הכפוריםKOHEN GADOL BA'YOM HA'KIPURIM- the Kohen Gadol [while performing the Avodah] on Yom Kippur [in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, when he wears four linen garments which do not include the Tzitz]
11)[line 41]אכילותACHILOS- those parts of a Korban which are consumed
12)[line 46]"ועשית עלתיך הבשר והדם על מזבח ה' א-לקיך; ודם זבחיך ישפך על מזבח ה' א-לקיך, והבשר תאכל""V'ASISA OLOSECHA HA'BASAR VEHA'DAM AL MIZBACH HASH-M EL-KECHA; V'DAM ZEVACHECHA YISHAFECH AL MIZBACH HASH-M EL-KECHA, VEHA'BASAR TOCHEL"- "And you shall offer your Olah offerings, both the meat and the blood, upon the Mizbe'ach of HaSh-m your G-d; and the blood of your [Shelamim] offerings you shall pour on the Mizbe'ach of HaSh-m your G-d, and you shall eat their meat" (Devarim 12:27).
13a)[line 47]אם אין דם אין בשרIM EIN DAM EIN BASAR- if the blood is not [dashed], the meat may not be [eaten]
b)[line 47]אם אין בשר אין דםIM EIN BASAR EIN DAM- if the meat is not [able to be eaten], the blood may not [be dashed]
14)[line 52]לול קטןLUL KATAN- (a) a small pit (RASHI); (b) a small shaft (RABEINU CHANANEL). There was a space left between the ramp leading up to the top of the Mizbe'ach and the top of the Mizbe'ach in order to access the Lul; hence, the Kohen needed to stand at the end of the ramp and throw the limbs of the Korbanos across the gap.
15)[line 5]דאית בהו שתי אכילותD'IS BEI SHTEI ACHILOS- which is twice consumed (i.e. some of it is burned on the Mizbe'ach, and some is eaten by the owner)
16)[line 19]אימורין דכי ליתנהוEIMURIM D'CHI LEISNEHU...- If the entrails of a Korban are lost or become Tamei, then that which they have not been offered does not prevent one from partaking of his Korban; if they are able to be offered, however, then one may not partake of his Korban until they are (59b).
17)[line 24]קסבר רבי יהושע הציץ מרצה על העוליןKASAVAR REBBI YEHOSHUA, HA'TZITZ MERATZEH AL HA'OLIN- Rebbi Yehoshua is of the opinion that the Tzitz causes anything brought up [to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, such as the fats or blood of a Korban,] to be acceptable [even if it has become Tamei]. Furthermore, the Gemara (on 79a) brings a Beraisa which states that Rebbi Yehoshua allows the blood of a Korban to be dashed upon the Mizbe'ach as long as a k'Zayis of either the meat or the fats remain. Therefore, Zerikas ha'Dam may be performed even if the fats become Tamei, since the Tzitz is Meratzeh.
18)[line 27]נטמאו שיריהNITME'U SHEYAREHA (KORBAN MINCHAH)
(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour. In all private Menachos, a Kometz (a handful) of the offering is burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29).
(b)A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains.
(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is offered by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin that comes from trees found in present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos and is later offered upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. (For many other details regarding the offering of and the various types of Menachos, see Background to Menachos 2:1.)
(e)The Mishnah quoted by our Gemara discusses the case of a Korban Minchah whose Sheyarei ha'Minchah have become Tamei, burned, or lost before the Kemitzah has been burned upon the Mizbe'ach.
19)[line 29]כמדתK'MIDAS- according to the opinion of
20)[line 31]ועוד תניא אמר רבי יוסי...V'OD TANYA AMAR REBBI YOSI...- The Gemara on 78a will explain this cryptic statement of Rebbi Yosi. At this point it is quoted in order to prove that Rebbi Yehoshua does not allow the Kometz of a Minchah (the equivalent of the blood of a Zevach) to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach as long as the Shirayim (the equivalent of the meat of a Zevach) are not fit to be consumed.
21)[line 45]כי אמר רבי יהושעKI AMAR REBBI YEHOSHUA- when Rebbi Yehoshua stated [that both the meat and the blood must be Tahor]
22)[line 45]שיצא חוץ לקלעיםSHE'YATZA CHUTZ LA'KELA'IM- it (a slaughtered Korban of Kodshei Kodashim) left the area within the curtains (this is a reference to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which corresponds to the area within the curtains of the Mishkan)
23a)[last line]חדא דפסולה דיעבד משמעCHADA, D'PESULA DI'EVED MASHMA- [The Gemara now refutes the attempted answer.] For one thing, [the word] "Pesulah" [attributed to Rebbi Yehoshua in the Mishnah in Menachos quoted earlier in the Gemara (beginning Nitme'u Sheyareha)] implies [that it is invalid] even b'Di'eved. (The Gemara does not address this question; see Insights to Pesachim 78:1.)
b)[last line]ועוד חמשה דברים באין לכתחלה משמעV'OD, "CHAMISHAH DEVARIM BA'IN" L'CHATCHILAH MASHMA- furthermore, [the words] "Chamishah Devarim Ba'in" [in our Mishnah] imply [that one may offer the following] even l'Chatchilah