[73a - 31 lines; 73b - 39 lines]
1)[line 4]דהתםHASAM- there, in the Mishnah on 61a
2)[line 4]משום דתנא סיפא פטורMISHUM D'TANA SEIFA PATUR- since the Mishnah wishes to teach later [that one who offers a Korban Pesach for both those who can and those who cannot partake of it is] Patur
3)[line 11]מקלקל בחבורה פטורMEKALKEL B'CHABURAH PATUR (MEKALKEL B'CHABURAH)
(a)One who performs a Melachah on Shabbos unintentionally must offer a Korban Chatas. As a general rule, this is true only if he does so through a creative act. The performance of a destructive act - even if it falls under the heading of one of the thirty-nine Melachos of Shabbos - does not incur a Chiyuv Chatas.
(b)The Tana'im disagree as to whether this rule applies to the Melachos of Chaburah (bruising and letting blood) and Hav'arah (igniting a fire). According to one Tana, these two Melachos are exceptions to the rule, and one is Chayav even through a destructive act of Chaburah or Hav'arah. The Tana who states "Mekalkel b'Chaburah Patur," however, maintains that there is no difference between these two Melachos and all other Melachos.
(c)According to the Tana who maintains that Mekalkel b'Chaburah Patur, there are only two ways to incur a Chiyuv Chatas for Chaburah on Shabbos: slaughtering an animal in such a manner that it becomes Kosher, and making a wound in an animal in order that his dog should have blood to consume.
4)[line 13]אם עלו לא ירדוIM ALU LO YARDU- [that] if [the innards of the Korban Pesach slaughtered she'Lo l'Ochlav] are [improperly] brought up [to the Mizbe'ach,] they [remain there and] need not be taken back down
5)[line 14]בדוקין שבעיןB'DOKIN SHEBA'AYIN- (O.F. teile) a cataract. This is the disqualifying blemish mentioned in Vayikra 21:20.
6)[line 19]בחוץB'CHUTZ (SHECHUTEI CHUTZ)
One must bring all animals consecrated to Hekdesh which are fit to be offered as sacrifices to the Beis ha'Mikdash, as the Torah states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Aside from this positive commandment, there is a negative commandment prohibiting their slaughter outside of the Azarah (Shechutei Chutz). The punishment for transgressing this Lav intentionally is Kares (ibid. 17:4; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #186). In addition, the animal becomes Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).
7)[line 20]אבר מן החיEVER MIN HA'CHAI
(a)Ever Min ha'Chai refers to an entire limb detached from an animal while it is still alive. An organ is considered a complete limb whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot) or only flesh (such as the tongue or heart). Basar Min ha'Chai refers to flesh detached from a limb of an animal while it is still alive. Both are forbidden by the Torah to be eaten (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).
(b)The prohibition to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is derived from the verse, "v'Lo Sochal ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar" - "You shall not eat the spirit together with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). If the limb contains only flesh (e.g. the tongue or heart), then he who eats it receives lashes if he consumes an entire k'Zayis of flesh. If the limb contains bones, sinews and flesh, then the bone and sinews combine with the flesh to make up a k'Zayis as long as the limb is eaten in that form (as opposed to one who detached the meat from the bone etc. prior to its consumption). One does not receive lashes for eating less than a k'Zayis even if he ate an entire limb. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros ch. 5; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #452)
(c)The prohibition for Bnei Noach to consume Ever Min ha'Chai is derived from the verse, "... mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan Achol Tochel" - "... from all the trees of the Garden [of Eden] you may surely eat" (Bereishis 2:16). The implication is that Adam was allowed to eat from all of the trees, but not Ever Min ha'Chai (Sanhedrin 56b). This follows the teaching of Rebbi Yochanan; other sages derive this prohibition from different sources (see Sanhedrin 56-57). Our Gemara answers that a Korban Pesach slaughtered in such a way that it becomes disqualified at the very least kills the animal, thereby preventing a Nochri from transgressing this prohibition were he to partake of its meat.
8)[line 22]אשם שניתק לרעיהASHAM SHE'NITAK L'RE'IYAH
(a)An Asham equivalent to any of the five Chata'os which are left to expire is put out to pasture (Nitak l'Re'iyah) until it develops a Mum (blemish), after which it is redeemed. The money which receives its Kedushah is then used to purchase a public voluntary Olah (Olas Nidvas Tzibur).
(b)The five Chata'os which must be left locked up without food or water until they expire are:
1.The offspring of a Chatas (which also has the Kedushah of a Chatas)
2.The Temurah (see Background to Temurah 2:1) of a Chatas
3.A Chatas whose owner has passed away
4.A sheep or goat designated as a Korban Chatas which is now older than one year (thereby invalidating it from being offered as a Korban Chatas) whose owner has offered a different Chatas to atone for his sin
5.A Chatas which was lost and later found with a Mum, whose owner has in the interim offered a different Chatas to atone for his sin (Temurah 21b).
9)[line 22]ושחטו סתםV'SHACHATO STAM- and he slaughtered it with no specific Korban in mind
10)[line 23]עקירהAKIRAH- see Background to Pesachim 72:1
11)[line 25]ומנא תימראU'MENA TEIMRA- and how do we know to say [that such a Gezeirah should be enacted]?
12)[line 26]ירעה עד שיסתאבYIR'EH AD SHE'YISTA'EV- should graze until it develops a Mum (a blemish that disqualifies it from being offered on the Mizbe'ach)
13)[line 27]לנדבהNEDAVAH (MOSAROS L'NIDVAS YACHID AZLEI... MOSAROS L'NIDVAS TZIBUR AZLEI)
(a)If a Korban is not fit to be offered, such as an Asham whose owner has passed away, it is left to graze until it develops a Mum (blemish) and then redeemed. What to then use this money for - as well as money which had been set aside to buy Korbanos and then left unused - is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im.
(b)The Chachamim are of the opinion that these funds are placed into the six Shofaros (coffers) kept in the Mikdash, the contents of which are used to purchase Korbanos for "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach." Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach consists of Korbanos Olah that are offered upon the Mizbe'ach when it is not otherwise in use. (Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings are called Kayitz since they are a "dessert" for the Mizbe'ach. Kayitz refers to cut figs, a common dessert.) These Korbanos are Korbenos Tzibur (communal offerings).
(c)Rebbi Elazar maintains that he who owns the money should use it to purchase a personal voluntary Korban Olah (Olas Nedavah).
14)[line 28]ימותYAMUS- it should be left to expire (see above, entry #8:b)
15)[line 4]אמטו להכיA'MATU L'HACHI- because of this
16)[line 5]מרישא הוה ליה שלמיםME'REISHA HAVAH LEI SHELAMIM- see Background to 72:1:b
17)[line 7]עיבור צורה בעיIBUR TZURAH BA'I (NOSAR: TE'UBAR TZURASAN)
(a)When a Korban or part of a Korban receives an extrinsic Pesul (as opposed to a Pesul ha'Guf), it must remain overnight so that Ibur Tzurah will occur. This literally means that the appearance of the Korban should become disfigured. After this happens, the parts of the Korban are burned.
(b)There is a Machlokes Rishonim how to understand exactly what Ibur Tzurah means. Rashi explains that it must be left until the following morning at which point it will be Nosar (see below, entry #28), and therefore ineligible to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach. Rabeinu Chananel (here and on Daf 34b) and the Rambam (Peirush ha'Mishnayos 7:9) understand that the intention of leaving it overnight is that it must be left until it has begun to decay somewhat.
18)[line 13]נזרקה מפי חבורהNIZREKAH MI'PI CHABURAH- it was thrown from the mouth of the group; i.e. this was the conclusion reached by those who were learning together, and it was unclear which individual came up with it
19)[line 14]כגון שהיוKEGON SHE'HAYU...- this was the explanation offered for the Mishnah on 63a, which states that a Korban Pesach requires an Akirah.
20)[line 17]הכא במאי עסקינןHACHA B'MAI ASKINAN- here with what are we dealing [in the Beraisa which states "Yisaref Miyad?"]
21)[line 19]נראה ונדחהNIR'EH V'NIDCHEH- see below, entry #23
22)[line 21]מידי הוא טעמא אלא לרב?MIDI HU TA'AMA ELA L'RAV?- is this not the reasoning suggested for Rav?
23)[line 22]בעלי חיים אינם נדחיםBA'ALEI CHAYIM EINAM NIDCHIM
(a)As a general rule, an animal fit to be offered as a Korban which subsequently becomes disqualified may never again be offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is known as Kol ha'Nir'eh v'Nidcheh Shuv Eino Chozer v'Nir'eh.
(b)Some Amora'im understand this rule to apply to all possible disqualifications of a Korban. Others, however, maintain that it applies only to a Pesul in the owner or blood of a Korban incurred after the animal has been slaughtered. As long as an animal is alive, it cannot be forever rejected as a Korban.
24)[line 23]הא מניHA MANI- who is it [that authored the Beraisa which states "Yisaref Miyad"]?
25)[line 24]אחריםACHERIM- Korbenos Shelamim
26)[line 26]טועה בדבר מצוהTO'EH B'DVAR MITZVAH- see Background to 71:23
27)[line 34]מאי טעמאMAI TA'AMA- what is the reason [that Rebbi Yishmael the son of Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah requires Ibur Tzurah]?
(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the verse in Vayikra (7:18) states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor."
(b)If a person eats Pigul intentionally he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)
(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time in which it may be eaten must be burned, as it states in Vayikra (19:6), "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next, and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire."
(b)If a person eats Nosar intentionally he is Chayav Kares, as it states (ibid. 19:8), "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" - "... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation." If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215)