WHEN CHAFIFAH MAY BE DONE (cont.)
(Rava): A woman who will immerse on Motza'ei Shabbos does Chafifah on Erev Shabbos.
Question (Rav Papa): Ravin sent a letter (from Eretz Yisrael) forbidding this;
It is difficult enough to allow Chafifah during the day before immersion at night. (We are concerned that if Chafifah is at night, she will rush it.) It should be right before Tevilah! (Surely, we do not allow Chafifah from before Shabbos. Rather, she does Chafifah on Motza'ei Shabbos!)
Rava publicly retracted, and said that the Halachah follows the letter in the name of R. Yochanan.
The Halachah is, she may do Chafifah during the day and immerse at night.
The Halachah is, she must do Chafifah at night.
Question: These Halachos contradict each other!
Answer: When it is possible to do Chafifah during the day (Rashi; She'altos - at night, i.e. on a Yom Chol), she must do so. If it is impossible (it is Shabbos or Yom Tov), she does so at night (She'altos - during the day).
ONE WHO DID NOT CHECK IN BETWEEN
(Mishnah): If a Nidah checked herself on day seven in the morning and she was "Tehorah" (she found no blood), but she was not Mafrish (check herself at the end of Nidus, i.e. just before) Bein ha'Shemashos, and later (after immersing) found that she is Teme'ah, she is Muchzekes Tehorah (for all or most of the interim -- see (c);
If she was Teme'ah in the morning of day seven (i.e. (she found blood), but she was not Mafrish Bein ha'Shemashos, and later found that she is Tehorah, she is Muchzekes Teme'ah (for the interim);
(In the Reisha) she is retroactively Teme'ah for 24 hours or from her last Bedikah (whichever is less). If she has a Veses, Dayah Sha'atah.
R. Yehudah says, if she was not Mafrish after the time of Minchah, she is Muchzekes Teme'ah. (Beis Yosef (196) - he refers to Minchah Ketanah, two and a half hours before night. Bartenura - he refers to (just before) Bein ha'Shemashos. Radal - he refers to Plag Minchah (one and a quarter hours before sundown, according to R. Tam, and Tosfos Berachos 27a, according to the Maharsha, who say that R. Yehudah holds that the day ends at Plag Minchah for all laws, not just for Tefilas Minchah.)
Chachamim say, even if she checked herself on day two and was Tehorah, and did not check Bein ha'Shemashos (of day seven), and later found that she is Teme'ah, she is Muchzekes Tehorah.
(Gemara - Rav): (We will explain which case Rav discusses.) She is a Vadai Zavah (if at least three days of Zivah have passed. Surely she saw three consecutive days);
(Levi): She is a Safek Zavah.
Question: What case do they discuss?
They cannot discuss the Reisha. It says that she is Muchzekes Tehorah!
Answer #1: They discuss the Seifa.
Objection: We understand why Levi considers her a Safek Zavah. How can Rav consider her to be a Vadai Zavah?!
Answer #2: Rather, Rav and Levi discuss a case not in our Mishnah:
(Rav): If a Nidah checked herself on day seven in the morning and she was Teme'ah, but she was not Mafrish Bein ha'Shemashos, and (at least three days) later found that she is Teme'ah, she is a Vadai Zavah;
(Levi): She is a Safek Zavah.
Rav considers her a Vadai Zavah. Because she saw blood when she last checked and also now, surely she was bleeding in the interim;
Levi considers her a Safek Zavah. Perhaps the blood ceased in the interim.
(Levi - Beraisa): (If a Nidah checked herself during the days of Nidah and was Teme'ah, but she did not Mafrish Bein ha'Shemashos), whether she later finds herself Tehorah or Teme'ah, she is a Safek Zavah.
(Mishnah): She is retroactively Teme'ah for 24 hours...
Suggestion: Our Mishnah refutes Rava!
Mishnah (39a): (A woman is Muchzekes Tehorah during the 11 days of Zivah.)
(Rava): This teaches that the 24 hours of retroactive Tum'ah do not apply during the 11 days.
Question: Rava was already refuted!
Answer: We suggest that also our Mishnah refutes him. (Above, a Beraisa refuted him. Perhaps he had not heard the Beraisa, but surely he knew our Mishnah!)
Rejection: No. Rava can say that this clause refers to the beginning of our Perek, i.e. a girl who saw blood before Nisu'in;
One might have thought that since she was Tehorah in between, (when she sees again after Nisu'in) she is (Dayah Sha'atah) like one who sees for the first time (Tosfos ha'Rosh - after Dam Tohar; Rashi - like one who never saw blood yet). The Mishnah teaches that this is not so. Retroactive Tum'ah applies to her.
(Mishnah): If she has a Veses (and saw at the time of her Veses), Dayah Sha'atah.
Suggestion: Our Mishnah (applies even if she saw during the days of Zivah. It) refutes Rav Huna bar Chiya!
(Rav Huna bar Chiya): The Mishnah (39a) teaches that one cannot fix a Veses during the days of Zivah.
Rejection: No. Rav Huna means that during the days of Zivah, one cannot fix a Veses that is not uprooted until (she does not see at the time of the Veses) three times;
(Her Veses is easily uprooted because) she is Mesulekes Damim. Therefore, she is Dayah Sha'atah.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): (If she was not Mafrish after Minchah, she is Muchzekes Teme'ah.)
(Beraisa) Chachamim: If you would require her to check all of Bein ha'Shemashos, we would understand this. However, since you do not, what is the difference between after Minchah of the seventh and the morning of the first? In either case, perhaps she saw after Hafrashah!
Interjection: Did anyone say that she may be Mafrish on the first day?! (The most lenient opinion in our Mishnah allows only from the second day!)
(Beraisa - Rebbi) Question: If a Nidah found herself Tehorah on the morning of day seven, but she was not Mafrish Bein ha'Shemashos, and later found that she is Teme'ah, what is the law?
R. Yosi and R. Shimon: She is Muchzekes Tehorah. (What she touched after immersing and before she found herself Tamei, it is Tahor. Some hold that even if she did not immerse, the Chazakah is that she did not see in the interim, so she is not a Zavah - Aruch l'Ner.)
Rebbi: If she was Mafrish on day six, five, four, three or two, what is the law?
R. Yosi and R. Shimon: The law is the same.
Rebbi: I erred. I should have asked about Hafrashah on day one!
Presumably, just like Hafrashah on the other days overturns her Chezkas Tum'ah, also on day one!
Question: Why didn't he ask about day one?
Answer: At the time, he was sure that Hafrashah would not help, for her Makor is Muchzak to be open (flowing).
UNCHECKED DAYS IN THE MIDDLE
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If a Zav or Zavah checked himself on the first and seventh days that he must count, and found himself to be clean, and did not check on the other days, we rely on Chazakah that also the intermediate days were clean;
R. Yehoshua says, only the two days checked count. Five more clean days are required;
R. Akiva says, only the seventh day counts.
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Eliezer (to R. Yehoshua)): If you are concerned for Tum'ah in the middle, day one should not count! "V'Achar Tithar" teaches that she must immerse after all the (seven clean) days (consecutively, without Tum'ah in the middle).
R. Yehoshua: Don't you agree that a Zav can count seven clean days that are not consecutive, e.g. if he saw Keri in the middle!
Also, the 30 days of Nezirus can be interrupted by Tum'ah due to foliage or ledges overhanging Tum'as Mes, even though it says "veha'Yamim ha'Rishonim Yiplu"! (Nazir 54a connotes that all (seven) days until becoming Tahor do not count towards the 30, and so explain the Me'iri, Rambam and Tosfos (Nazir). It is not clear why Rashi says that only one day does not count.)
R. Eliezer: Regarding Zav, "Letam'ah Vah" teaches that Keri is Soser only the duration of its Tum'ah (one day);
We need not decree (to be Soser all seven days), lest people confuse Zov with Keri.
Regarding Nazir, only a proper Ohel is Metamei mid'Oraisa. Chachamim decreed about the foliage and ledges. We need not decree lest people confuse Tum'ah mid'Oraisa with mid'Rabanan. (This connotes that the foliage and ledges are not proper Ohalim. Tosfos 57a suggests that perhaps they are Ohalim, but Safek Tum'ah in Reshus ha'Rabim is Tahor mid'Oraisa. Tosfos (Nazir) says that the foliage is not a proper Ohel. The ledges are a case of Safek Tum'ah in Reshus ha'Rabim.)
However, if we say that unchecked days neither count nor are Soser regarding Zavah, due to the Safek (perhaps she saw), people will say that she Vadai saw, and even so it is not Soser!
(Beraisa - R. Shimon and R. Yosi): R. Eliezer's opinion is more reasonable than R. Yehoshua's. (Since R. Yehoshua is concerned lest an intermediate day was not clean, the first day should not count);
R. Akiva's opinion is the most reasonable. (We must be concerned lest an intermediate day was not clean.) However, the Halachah follows R. Eliezer.