[21a - 41 lines; 21b - 49 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi.

[1] Rashi 21a DH Teshev l'Zachar " :

The words "Yemei Tum'as Shiv'ah"

should be "Yemei Tum'ah Shiv'ah"

[2] Rashi DH b'Lo Dam " :

The words "v'Lo Amar Dam Acher"

should be "v'Lo Amrinan Dam Acher"

[3] Rashi 21b DH d'Tana Kama " :

The words "Dam Tahor Hu"

should be "Dam Nidah Hu" (Rashash, Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)

[4] Rashi DH Teme'ah " :

The words "Dam Nidah Hi Teme'ah"

should be "Dam Nidah Hi u'Teme'ah"


1)[line 1] ...HA'SHARONI NIDON KA'KARMELI CHAI...- diluted wine from the Sharon has the same color as undiluted wine from the Carmel mountains; (according to the Girsa "KA'SHARONI NIDON HA'KARMELI" - the wine from the Carmel mountains has the same color as the wine from the Sharon)

2)[line 3] CHOS TEVERYA PASHUT- a cup from Tiberias, made of very thin glass (O.F. tenves - thin)

3)[line 8] AIDI D'KALISH- since it is thin

4)[line 8] YEDI'A BEI TEFEI- the color is more apparent


(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8, the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. (The same Halachos apply to a woman who miscarries after the fetus has reached a certain stage of development.) After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages:

1.During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is known as a "Tevulas Yom Aroch" (a "long" Tevulas Yom see Background to Nidah 71:23b), and she is permitted to her husband and to eat Ma'aser Sheni.

2.During the second stage, any bleeding that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. This blood is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Terumah, Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)Any bleeding that the woman experiences after the conclusion of the above two terms is the start of her regular cycle (Dam Nidah).

(c)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even if she experiences bleeding during the period of Dam Tohar see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

6)[line 10]CHATICHAH- a piece of flesh

7)[line 12]KELIPAH- a peel

8)[line 13]YAVCHUSHIN- Drosphilia, a small fly whose larvae feed on fruit and decaying plants; fruit fly

9)[line 14]NIMOCHU- they dissolve


(a)See above, entry #5.

(b)A woman who does not know whether she gave birth to a male or a female must act in accordance with the stringencies of both. The initial term, during which she has the same status as a Nidah, is kept for two weeks. The second term, when her blood is Dam Tohar, is kept from then until the end of forty days from the time of birth. However, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis Ha'Mikdash until eighty days after the birth.


(a)Efshar li'Fesichas ha'Kever b'Lo Dam means that it is possible for the womb to open without blood coming out.

(b)When a woman bleeds during childbirth, she usually becomes a Nidah. If no trace of blood is found during the birth, there is a Machlokes as to whether she is Tehorah or not. Tana Kama of our Mishnah rules that it is possible for the womb to open without blood coming out. Rebbi Yehudah rules that this is impossible; the blood must have become lost.

12)[last line]KASHASAH- if a woman had labor pains (accompanied by bleeding)


13)[line 30] ZUGA D'MIN CHADYIV- (a) a pair of Torah scholars from Adiabena, a district of Assyria between the rivers Lycus and Caprus (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa "ZUZA D'MIN CHADYIV" - the name of a scholar from that place

14)[line 33]AGUR- collected together

15)[line 34] LO B'SHEFOFERES- that is, the blood must exit through the Prozdor and not through a tube, in order to be Tamei

16)[line 41] YESH IMAH DAM- that is, if there is blood around the Chatichah, outside of it

17)[line 42]SHEFIR- the outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form

18)[line 45] PALEI PELUYEI- it has crevices on the outside that have blood in them

19)[line 46]SHI'A- it is smooth [on the outside]