(Mishnah): If one vowed from dates, he may eat date honey. If one vowed from Stavaniyos (bad grapes that do not ripen), he may have vinegar made from such grapes;
R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, if one vowed from a food he may not have any derivative called by the name of that food;
(Gemara) Question: What do Chachamim and the first Tana argue about?
Answer: They argue about R. Shimon ben Elazar's distinction:
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): If one vowed from any food that is normal to eat it, and it is normal to eat a derivative of it, such as dates and date honey, (even) its derivative is forbidden;
If one vowed from the derivative, (also) the food is forbidden;
If one vowed from a food that is not normally eaten, and it is normal to eat a derivative of it (e.g. vinegar made from bad grapes), only the derivative is forbidden, for this was his intention. (Ran - the first Tana always forbids the food and permits the derivative. R. Shimon ben Elazar forbids the food and/or the derivative, whichever is normally eaten. R. Yehudah ben Beseira agrees, but he also forbids the food even if it is not normally eaten. The latter Chachamim in the Mishnah hold like R. Shimon ben Elazar, and permit the food in a case when it is not normally eaten.)
(Mishnah): If one vowed from wine, he may drink apple wine. If one vowed from oil, honey or vinegar, he may have sesame (seed) oil, date honey and vinegar of bad grapes.
If one vowed from leeks, he may eat he may eat Kaplutos (large leeks). If one vowed from Yerakos (vegetables in which we eat the plant itself, not just the seeds) he may eat Yerakos of the field;
All these are permitted because they have accompanying names (they are not called Stam wine, oil...)
(Gemara - Beraisa): In Eretz Yisrael, if one vowed from oil, sesame oil is permitted but olive oil is not. In Bavel, it is vice-versa;
In a place where both are used, both are forbidden.
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: It is not obvious in a place where one of them is used more.
One might have thought that we go after the majority usage. The Beraisa teaches that we do not. Since it is a Safek Isur, we are stringent.
If one vowed from Yerek in a non-Shemitah year, garden Yerakos are forbidden, and Yerakos of the field are permitted;
(If he vowed) in Shemitah, Yerakos of the field are forbidden, and garden Yerakos are permitted.
(R. Avahu): This is only in a place where Yerakos are not brought from Chutz la'Aretz (in Shemitah). In a place where Yerakos are imported, (Ran - also; Tosfos - only) garden Yerakos are forbidden.
Tana'im argue about whether or not one may import Yerakos.
(Beraisa): We may not import Yerakos from Chutz la'Aretz;
R. Chananyah ben Gamliel permits.
(R. Yirmiyah): The first Tana forbids, lest a clod of soil will be brought in with the Yerakos (soil of Chutz la'Aretz is Tamei).
SUBCATEGORIES OF FOOD
(Mishnah): If one vowed from cabbage, he may not eat Aspargus (a type of cabbage). If one vowed from Aspargus, he may eat (other types of) cabbage;
If one vowed from Grisin (a bean dish), he may not eat Mikpah (porridge of beans or grain that contains garlic);
R. Yosi permits;
If one vowed from Mikpah, he may eat Grisin, but not garlic;
R. Yosi permits (even garlic).
If one vowed from garlic, he may eat Mikpah. If one vowed from lentils, he may not eat Ashishim (the waste of lentils; alternatively, lentils fried in honey);
R. Yosi permits.
If one vowed from Ashishim, he may eat lentils.
If one said 'I will not taste wheat, wheats', he may not eat wheat flour or bread;
If one said ' I will not taste Gris, Grisin' he may not eat raw or cooked Grisin;
R. Yehudah says, if he said 'Gris or wheat is forbidden to me', he may eat them raw.
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): If one said 'I will not taste wheat', he may not eat baked wheat (i.e. bread), but he may eat raw wheat;
If he said 'I will not taste wheats', he forbids raw wheat, but he may eat it baked;
If he said 'I will not taste wheat, wheats', he may not eat it raw or baked.
If one said 'I will not taste Gris', he may not eat cooked Gris, but he may eat it raw;
If he said 'I will not taste Grisin' he may not eat them raw, but he may eat them cooked;
If he said 'Gris, Grisin I will not taste', he may not eat them raw or cooked.