PERMISSION THROUGH REGRET
The grandson of the elder R. Yanai came before the elder R. Yanai to permit a vow.
R. Yanai - Had you known that because of your vow, the Heavenly Beis Din will open your case and scrutinize your deeds, would you have vowed?
His grandson - No.
R. Yanai permitted the vow.
(R. Aba): R. Yanai learned that a vow causes one's deeds to be scrutinized from "after vows, to investigate".
Even though R. Yanai used this to be Pose'ach (suggest that a vow was mistaken, which is grounds to permit it), we do not use it.
Also, we are not Pose'ach with the following:
(R. Gamliel): "One can damage like a sword through his utterance, but the words of Chachamim heal" - anyone who vows should be pierced by a sword, but Chachamim can cure him (by permitting the vow).
Also, we are not Pose'ach with the following teaching:
(R. Nasan): One who vows is like one who builds a private Mizbe'ach (when they are forbidden); one who fulfills the vow (i.e. and does not permit it) is like one who offers a Korban on it.
Version #1 (Rav Kahana): We are Pose'ach with the first half of the teaching.
(Abaye): We may also use the second half.
(Rava): We may not use the second half.
Version #2 (Rav Tivyomi): We are not Pose'ach with the second half of the teaching.
(Abaye): We may use the first half.
(Rava): We may not use the first half.
The Halachah is, we may not use either half.
Also, we are not Pose'ach with Shmuel's teaching.
(Shmuel): Even though one fulfills the vow, he is called wicked.
(R. Avahu): This is learned from "When you will refrain from vowing, there will not be sin in you".
We learn from a Gezeirah Shavah "cease-cease". It says "when you will cease from vowing" and "there, the wicked ceased from rage."
(Rav Yosef): A Mishnah teaches that one who vows is called wicked.
(Mishnah): If one vowed 'like vows of proper people', this is not a vow. If he said 'like vows of Resha'im', this is a vow, be it a vow of Nezirus, to bring a Korban, or an oath.
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): All types of Gehinom rule over one who gets angry - "Remove anger from your heart, and purge evil from your flesh."
"Evil" refers to Gehinom - "Hash-m did everything for his praise; also a Rasha, on his evil day (will be a praise of Hash-m)".
Also, Tachtoniyos (hemorrhoids) rule over him - "Hash-m will give you there a raging heart, longing eyes and a worried soul".
What makes the eyes yearn and the soul worried? Tachtoniyos!
Two people from Bei Chuzai accompanied Ula when he came to Eretz Yisrael. One slaughtered the other, and asked Ula if this was proper.
Ula: Yes! Open his neck (so he will die quickly)!
Question (Ula): Did I sin by condoning a sinner?
Answer (R. Yochanan): No, you saved your life!
Question (R. Yochanan): How can this be? "There (in Chutz la'Aretz) you will have a raging heart"!
Answer (Ula): At the time, we were on the other side of the Jordan River (in Chutz la'Aretz).
(Rabah bar Rav Huna): Even the Divine Presence is not important to one who gets angry - "A Rasha, at the height of his anger, does not seek - in his plans, he ignores Hash-m".
(R. Yirmiyah mi'Difti): (Anger makes him) forget his learning and increase foolishness.
"Anger will rest in the lap of fools"; "A fool will spread his foolishness".
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Clearly, his sins outnumber his merits - "An angry person has great transgressions".
(Rav Ada b'Rebbi Chanina): Had Yisrael not sinned, we would only have received the five Chumashim, and Sefer Yehoshua, which is needed for the boundaries of the tribes in Eretz Yisrael.
Answer: "In great Chachmah is great anger" (Maharsha - much of Nevi'im and Kesuvim recount Hash-m's anger over Yisrael's sins; Etz Yosef - had Yisrael not sinned with the Eigel, we would have understood everything through the Chumashim, without need for other Sefarim).
VOWS WE DO NOT PERMIT
(R. Asi): If one mentioned Elokei Yisrael in his oath (some explain, vow), we do not permit it, unless a man vowed that his wife should not benefit from him because she stole his wallet or hit his son, and he later learned that he was mistaken. (Rosh - we are lenient for the sake of Shalom between a man and his wife. Th text should not say 'because she stole... and he learned that he was mistaken', for a mistaken oath need not be permitted.)
A woman came before Rav Asi; she had mentioned Elokei Yisrael in her vow.
Rav Asi: Had you vowed with Mohi (i.e. sworn), which is not an actual name of Hash-m, I would (Ran - not) have dealt with you (to permit the oath). Now that you swore using Elokei Yisrael', I will (Ran - certainly) not deal with you!
Rav Kahana visited the house of Rav Yosef.
Rav Yosef: Eat something.
Rav Kahana: (I swear in the name of) the Master of everything, I will not eat!
Rav Yosef: No, (I swear in the name of) the Master of everything, you will not eat!
Question: We understand why Rav Kahana swore (so Rav Yosef would not persist to ask him to eat);
But why did Rav Yosef swear?
Answer: He did not swear. Rather, he said 'since you said 'Master of everything', you will not eat.'
(Rava): The Halachah is, we permit vows through regret, and we permit vows taken with 'Elokei Yisrael.'
WAYS OF PROMPTING REGRET
Rava was praising Rav Schorah in front of Rav Nachman. Rav Schorah came before Rav Nachman with a vow to permit.
Rav Nachman suggested things that Rav Schorah might have overlooked when he vowed. Each time, Rav Schorah said that he vowed with that in mind.
Rav Nachman was disturbed. 'Go home' (I cannot permit your vow).
Rav Schorah found a Pesach (a reason to considered his vow to be mistaken) to permit his own vow.
(Mishnah - Rebbi) Question: Which is the straight way that a man should choose? Whatever is glory to his Maker and glory to him from people.
Rav Schorah: I did not vow with intent that this would upset Rav Nachman!
R. Shimon b'Rebbi came before Chachamim to permit a vow. They suggested things that he might have overlooked when he vowed. Each time, he said that he vowed with that in mind. Chachamim were pained by this.