AN OATH TO DO A MITZVAH
(Rav Gidal): "Nishbati va'Akayemah Lishmor Mishpetei Tzidkecha" teaches that one may swear to fulfill a Mitzvah.
Question: The oath (of Kabalas ha'Torah) of Sinai already obligates him (so another oath cannot take effect! Ran - we know that there is no Korban for transgressing such an oath. If he teaches that "Lo Yachel Devaro" applies, this is not learned from "Nishbati va'Akayemah"!)
Answer: He teaches that it is permitted to make himself zealous (to do the Mitzvah. It is proper, even for Tzadikim who normally do not swear.)
(Rav Gidal): If one said '"I will get up early to learn tractate Ploni", this is a great Neder. (Really, it is a Shevu'ah. He means, it is as great as a Neder of Tzedakah.)
Question: The oath of Sinai already obligates him!
Surely, he does not teach that it is proper to do so. He already taught this above!
Answer: Since the Torah does not (explicitly) obligate more than saying "Shema Yisrael..." every morning and evening, the Shevu'ah takes effect (even regarding bringing a Korban if he transgresses it).
(Rav Gidal): If David said to Levi '"Let us rise early to learn tractate Ploni", David must rise first;
Hash-m told Yechezkel "Go to the valley, and I will speak with you there", and Yechezkel found the Shechinah already there.
ONE WHO WAS EXCOMMUNICATED IN A DREAM
(Rav Yosef): If Levi was excommunicated in a dream, he must get ten people to permit him.
The ten must be people who teach Halachos. People who only learn (some texts - Mishnah) do not suffice.
If one cannot find 10 who teach, he may use ten who learn.
If one cannot gather 10 who learn, he should sit at the crossroad and give Shalom to passersby (they will return Shalom to him), until ten who learn Halachos have passed.
Question (Ravina): If he knows that David excommunicated him in the dream, can David permit him?
Answer (Rav Ashi): No. Perhaps David was a Shali'ach from Shamayim only to excommunicate him, but not to permit him.
Question (Rav Acha): If David excommunicated him and released him in the dream, what is the law?
Answer (Rav Ashi): All dreams contain some nonsense. (Perhaps the permission is nonsense.)
BEING A SHALI'ACH TO PERMIT ONE'S WIFE'S VOW
Question (Ravina): Can a man be a Shali'ach for his wife, to permit her Neder through regret? (Ravina wanted to do so for his wife.)
Answer (Rav Ashi): He may do so only if he finds (three) people already gathered. If not, he may not assemble a Beis Din to permit it.
We learn three things from this:
A man can be a Shali'ach for his wife's regret.
One cannot permit a Neder in his Rebbi's region. (If not, Ravina would have permitted her himself or asked his Talmidim to do so.)
One can be a Shali'ach for his wife's regret only if three are already gathered.
One can permit excommunication even in his Rebbi's town.
An outstanding Chacham can permit excommunication by himself.
REWARD AND PUNISHMENT THROUGH THE SUN
(Rav Shimon bar Zevid): "V'Zarchah Lachem Yir'ei Shemi" refers to people who are afraid to say Hash-m's Name in vain;
(Abaye): Dust that can be seen (only) in the sun heals - "Shemesh Tzedakah u'Marpei."
He argues with Reish Lakish:
(Reish Lakish): In the world to come, there is no Gehinom for Resha'im. (Ran - he discusses after Techiyas ha'Meisim. He agrees that there is Gehinom after death.) Rather, Hash-m will remove the sun from its case;
It will heal Tzadikim - "Shemesh Tzedakah u'Marpei." They will delight in it - "u'Fishtem k'Eglei Marbek";
It will punish Resha'im - "Hinei Yom Bo'er ka'Tanur..."