[53a - 22 lines; 53b - 33 lines]

1a)[line 11]לכלLA'KOL- (lit. for all) that is, for the Halachos of Tum'as Ohel that affect a Nazir, a person who is on his way to sacrifice his Korban Pesach and for Terumah and Kodshin

b)[line 11]לא לכלLO LA'KOL- (lit. not for all) that is, for no Halachos

2)[line 16]אין הכרעת שלישית מכרעתEIN HACHRA'AS SHELISHIS MACHRA'AS

(a)When three opinions are expressed regarding a certain matter and one of them is an intermediate opinion which accepts part of what was expressed by each extreme opinion, thereby compromising between the two other opinions, the Halachah follows that opinion.

(b)If the intermediate opinion is stated as an independent third opinion, and is not based on a dichotomy hinted at by the first two opinions, the Halachah does not necessarily follow that opinion (RASHI to Pesachim 21a).

3)[line 18]מפי שמועה אמרוMI'PI SHEMU'AH AMRU- they quoted a tradition

4)[last line]אבן הסכוכיתEVEN HA'SECHUCHIS- (a) a stone that protrudes from a wall under which lies something that is Tamei Mes. If there are a number of stones protruding from a wall with intervening spaces between them and Tum'as Mes is found only under one of them, a Nazir who passes under one of the stones (but does not remember which one) becomes Tamei. Although he has to have the ashes of the Parah Adumah sprinkled on him, he does not have to start his Nezirus anew if there are thirty days left to his Nezirus [although the days that he is Tamei do not count to his Nezirus]. He also does not need to bring Korbenos Tum'ah or to shave (TOSFOS); (b) Even Mesama, a stone that is set up on poles or supports, such that whatever is underneath it (such as the Tum'as Mes of our Sugya) does not touch it (RASHI to Shabbos 82b, MEFARESH; see Backrground to Shabbos 82:34).

53b----------------------------------------53b

5)[line 3]דאקמח אקמוחיD'AKMACH AKMUCHEI- the bones were pulverized until they were as fine as flour

6)[line 28]"וכל אשר יגע על פני השדה כחלל חרב או במת [או בעצם אדם או בקבר יטמא שבעת ימים]""V'CHOL ASHER YIGA AL PENEI HA'SADEH BA'CHALAL CHEREV O V'MES [O V'ETZEM ADAM O V'KAVER; YITMA SHIV'AS YAMIM.]"- "And whoever touches one who was slain with a sword in the open fields, or a dead body, [or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be Tamei for seven days.]" (Bamidbar 19:16)

7)[line 31]ויש לו להעלות ארוכהV'YESH LO L'HA'ALOS ARUCHAH- and it could regenerate new skin if it would still be attached to a living body

8)[line 31]חרב ה''ז כחללCHEREV HAREI ZEH K'CHALAL (a sword is like a corpse)

(a)Any metal utensil that touched a dead body is given the same level of Tum'ah as the dead body itself, i.e. it becomes an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah. Similarly, if a metal utensil touched an Av ha'Tum'ah, it becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah. (A Rishon or Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make utensils Teme'im.)

(b)According to some Rishonim, this law applies to non-metal utensils (except for earthenware) as well - see Insights to Pesachim 14b.

9)[line 32]אבר הנחלל מן המתEVER HA'NECHLAL MIN HA'MES- a limb that was severed from a corpse

10)[last line]קבר סתוםKEVER SASUM - lit. a sealed grave, e.g. a grave that does not have a Tefach in between the corpse and the ceiling of the grave, and does not have a Tefach opening at the side

(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent); an Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height).

(b)When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is Chotzetz from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).

(c)However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.

(d)A space that is less than a Tefach in length, width, and height, is not considered an Ohel. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the enclosure, but is Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes, i.e. it "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air. Similarly, if a grave has less than a Tefach of space between the body and the ceiling of the grave, the Tum'ah inside it is Tum'ah Retzutzah. The Tum'ah is Metamei everything that is above it within the boundaries of the Tum'ah (until something is Chotzetz, thus keeping it inside an Ohel) and below it.

(e)Most graves have a space of a Tefach between the body and the ceiling of the grave (Berachos 19b). If the grave is completely sealed on all sides, it is a Kever Sasum. The Tum'ah inside it fills the entire Kever and is likewise Boka'as v'Olah, Boka'as v'Yoredes until something is Chotzetz above it. A grave that has an open space of a Tefach at the side is not a Kever Sasum, and the Tum'ah within it is prevented from rising above the ceiling of the grave (Ohalos 3:7). In this case, the Tefach above the body is Chotzetz.

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