MOED KATAN 15 (30 Av) - Today's study material has been dedicated by Al and Sophie Ziegler of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, in honor of the Yahrzeit of Al's father, Bernard B. Ziegler - Binyamin Baruch ben Avraham (and Miryam) - on 30 Menachem Av.

1)

HAIRCUTS FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not cut his hair, as derived from a Pasuk in the Torah.

(b)

Question: May a Menudeh and Metzora cut their hair?

(c)

Answer: A Beraisa explicitly says no. (It also says that if a Menudah dies during his Niduy a large stone is placed over his casket.)

2)

WRAPPING OF THE HEAD FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner must wrap his head with a kerchief (see Tosfos 21a why this is not done any more), as derived from Yechezkel.

(b)

Must a Menudeh wrap his head?

1.

The Gemara attempts to bring a proof that he must from a Beraisa that deals with people who have fasted for rain but did not have their prayers answered. "They must sit with their heads wrapped like Menudim and mourners."

2.

The proof is rejected, because in that case the people are Menudim from Hash-m Himself, and this is a more serious type of Niduy.

(c)

A Metzora must wrap his head, as it says clearly in the Torah.

3)

TEFILIN FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not put on Tefilin (see below, 21a, for details), as derived from Yechezkel.

(b)

May a Menudeh put on Tefilin? The question remains unanswered.

(c)

May a Metzora put on Tefilin?

1.

The Gemara attempts to bring a proof from a Beraisa that discusses the Torah's law that a Metzora must be "Pore'a" his head. R. Eliezer says this means that he must grow his hair. R. Akiva says it means he may not put something ON his head. The Gemara thinks that this "something" is Tefilin.

2.

The proof is rejected. The "something" might be just a hat or head ornament.

4)

GREETINGS FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not give a greeting (see below, 21b, for details), as derived from Yechezkel.

(b)

May a Menudeh give a greeting?

1.

The Gemara attempts to bring a proof from the above Beraisa (2:b:1) that deals with people who have fasted for rain. "They must not greet each other."

2.

The proof is rejected on the same grounds as it was in 2:b:2.

(c)

May a Metzora give a greeting?

1.

A Beraisa states clearly that he may not.

2.

Question: The Beraisa seems to imply that a Menudeh may also not give a greeting, so why do we not use it as a proof for Menudeh?

3.

Answer: The Beraisa does not necessarily carry this implication about the Menudeh.

5)

TORAH LEARNING FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not study Torah, as derived from Yechezkel.

(b)

May a Menudeh study Torah?

1.

A Beraisa states explicitly that he may learn or teach Torah. (However, a Muchram [more serious than a Menudeh] may only learn by himself but not teach or be taught by others.)

(c)

May a Metzora study Torah?

1.

A Beraisa states explicitly that he may study Torah.

6)

LAUNDERING FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not launder his clothes, as derived from Sefer Shmuel.

(b)

May a Menudeh and a Metzora launder their clothes?

1.

A Beraisa states explicitly that they may not.

7)

RIPPING CLOTHES FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner must rip his clothing, as derived from the Torah.

(b)

Must a Menudeh rip his clothing? No answer is given.

(c)

A Metzora must rip his clothing, as the Torah says explicitly.

15b----------------------------------------15b

8)

TURNING THE BED OVER FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner must turn his bed over (see Tosfos 21a why this is not done any more). Bar Kapara explains the symbolism behind this act.

(b)

Must a Menudeh and a Metzora turn their beds over? The question remains unanswered.

9)

WORK FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not do work, as derived from a Pasuk.

(b)

May a Menudeh do work?

1.

The Gemara attempts to bring a proof from a Beraisa that states that people fasting for rain must refrain from work (except at nights) and must do several other mourning-like actions, "and the same goes for a mourner and a Menudeh." The Gemara thinks that the clause "the same goes for... Menudeh" applies to refraining from work.

2.

The proof is rejected, because the clause may be referring to the other mourning-like actions mentioned there.

3.

Another Beraisa states specifically that he may do work.

(c)

May a Metzora do work? The question remains unanswered.

10)

BATHING (AND ANOINTING THE SKIN WITH OIL) FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not bathe (or anoint his skin with oil), as derived from Sefer Shmuel.

(b)

May a Menudeh bathe?

1.

The Gemara attempts to bring a proof from a Beraisa that states that people fasting for rain must refrain from bathing (except for hands, face and feet) and must do several other mourning-like actions, "and the same goes for a mourner and a Menudeh." The Gemara thinks that the clause "the same goes for... Menudeh" applies to bathing.

2.

The proof is rejected, because the clause may be referring to the other mourning-like actions mentioned there.

(c)

May a Metzora bathe? The question remains unanswered.

11)

WEARING SHOES FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A Mourner may not wear shoes, as derived from Yechezkel.

(b)

May a Menudeh wear shoes?

1.

The Gemara attempts to bring a proof from a Beraisa that states that people fasting for rain must not wear shoes (except when on the road) and must do several other mourning-like actions, "and the same goes for a mourner and a Menudeh." The Gemara thinks that the clause "the same goes for... Menudeh" applies to wearing shoes.

2.

The proof is rejected, because the clause may be referring to the other mourning-like actions mentioned there.

(c)

May a Metzora wear shoes? The question remains unanswered.

12)

MARITAL RELATIONSFOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

Marital relations are forbidden to a mourner, as derived from the book of Shmuel.

(b)

May a Menudeh engage in marital relations?

1.

The Gemara attempts to prove that he may, from the fact that the while the Israelites were wandering in the desert they were considered Menudim, and yet they obviously engaged in marital relations.

2.

The proof is rejected because perhaps a Menudah by Hash-m Himself is not the same (it is less serious) as a regular Menudeh.

3.

This rejection is based on a line of reasoning which is the exact oppisite of that employed above (2:b:2). The idea is that since it cannot be established with certainty which (if either) kind of Niduy is more strict than the other - regular Menudeh or Menudeh to Hash-m - no conclusion may be drawn in either direction.

(c)

May a Metzora engage in marital relations?

1.

(Beraisa): "A Metzora must be like a Menudeh and a mourner, forbidden to engage in marital relations."

2.

Question: Since the Beraisa says "like a Menudeh... forbidden to engage in marital relations," can we derive that a Menudeh is also forbidden to engage in marital relations?

3.

Answer: No, perhaps the two statements are disjointed: For one thing, he must be like a Menudeh, and for another thing he may not engage in marital relations.

13)

SACRIFICES FOR A MOURNER, A MENUDEH AND A METZORA

(a)

A mourner may not offer a sacrifice, as derived from the Torah.

(b)

May a Menudeh offer a sacrifice?

1.

The Gemara attempts to prove that he may, from the fact that the while the Israelites were wandering in the desert they were considered Menudim, and yet they offered sacrifices.

2.

The proof is rejected as above, 12:b:2.

(c)

May a Metzora offer a sacrifice?

1.

The Gemara proves that he may not, from a Beraisa in which R. Yehudah and R. Shimon disagree about the interpretation of a Pasuk in Yechezkel, but they both agree to the same basic principle: A sacrifice may be offered only by someone who is himself permitted to enter the Temple (which a Metzora is not).

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