THE SOURCE THAT ALL MENACHOS ARE MATZAH
(Gemara - Rav Freida) Question: What is the source that all Menachos are Matzah?
Objection (R. Ami): This is obvious! Regarding some Menachos it says "Matzah". We learn the others from "v'Zos Toras ha'Minchah... veha'Noseres...Matzos Te'achel"!
Rav Freida: I know the source that l'Chatchilah, they must be Matzah. I asked for the source that this is Me'akev.
Answer #1 (R. Ami): We learn that from "Lo Se'afeh Chametz", rather, Matzah.
Objection #1 (Rav Chisda): Why don't we expound "Lo Se'afeh Chametz", rather, Sei'or (partially fermented dough)?
Question: Which definition of Sei'or could this be?
According to R. Yehudah, it cannot be what R. Meir calls Sei'or (a dough that starts darkening). R. Yehudah considers this to be proper Matzah! (If so, Rav Chisda had no question.)
According to R. Meir, it cannot be what R. Yehudah calls Sei'or (a dough with cracks resembling grasshopper antennae). R. Meir considers this to be proper Chametz!
According to R. Meir, it cannot be what he himself calls Sei'or. Since he says that one is lashed for eating it on Pesach, it is Chametz!
Answer: It is according to R. Yehudah, based on what he himself calls Sei'or.
Objection #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Why don't we expound "Lo Se'afeh Chametz", rather, Chalut (scalded in boiling water)?
Answer: Chalut is "Revichah". Only Menachos that the Torah says should be Revichah are made Revichah.
Rejection: Perhaps the Torah commands to make some Menachos Revichah, and the others may be Revichah or Matzah!
Objection #3 (Ravina): We should say that "Lo Se'afeh Chametz" is a Lav forbidding making them Chametz, but this does not Posel Menachos!
Answer #2 (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Matzah" is only a Mitzvah (l'Chatchilah)!
Rejection: "Sihyeh" - it is Me'akev.
Question (Rav Freida): What is the source (of the next Mishnah, 55a) that (since) all Menachos are kneaded with lukewarm water, we must be Shomer (guard) them from becoming Chametz (by constantly working with the dough?)
Answer #1 (R. Ami): We learn from Pesach. There it says "u'Shmartem Es ha'Matzos."
Answer #2 (Rav Freida): We can learn from the Parshah of Menachos itself. It says "Matzah Sihyeh" - ensure that it remains Matzah!
Question: We already expounded "Sihyeh" to teach that Matzah is Me'akev!
Answer: If the Torah only wanted to teach that Matzah is Me'akev, it should have said 'Matzah Hi';
Rather, it says "Matzah Sihyeh", to teach also Shimur.
Rabanan: R. Ezra, the grandson of R. Avtulmus is outside. He is a 10th generation descendant of R. Elazar ben Azaryah, who is a 10th generation descendant of Ezra!
Rav Freida: If he is a Chacham of good lineage, that is great;
If he descends from Chachamim but he is not a Chacham, fire will consume him! (Tzon Kodoshim - Chachamim are not burned in Gehinom.)
Rav Freida saw that R. Ezra (Rashi; R. Gershom - R. Ezra saw that Rav Freida) felt bad. He said the following to endear him.
"Amarta la'Shem Elokim Atah Tovasi Bal Alecha" - Keneses Yisrael said to Hash-m, You should be grateful to me. I made You known in the world!
Ha'Shem responded, My gratitude is to Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov. They were the first to make Me known - "Li'Kedoshim Asher ba'Aretz Hemah v'Adirei Kol Cheftzi Bam"
R. Ezra (according to R. Gershom - Rav Freida): Hash-m said (at the time of Keri'as Yam Suf), let the Adir (Mighty One) take vengeance for Adirim from Adirim in Adirim;
The Adirim referred to are (in order) Hash-m, Yisrael, Mitzrayim and water. Each is called "Adir" in a verse.
Let Yedid (a dear friend) the son of Yedid build Yedid for Yedid in the portion of Yedid, to atone for Yedidim;
The Yedidim referred to are Shlomo, Avraham, the Beis ha'Mikdash, Hash-m, Binyamin and Yisrael.
Let Tov receive Tov from Tov for Tovim;
The Tovim referred to are Moshe, Torah, Hash-m and Yisrael.
Let Zeh receive Zos from Zeh for Am Zu;
These refer to Moshe, Torah, Hash-m and Yisrael.
(R. Yitzchak): When the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, Hash-m found Avraham in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
Avraham: I came to pray for my children!
Hash-m: They sinned and were exiled.
Avraham: Perhaps they sinned b'Shogeg!
Hash-m: "Asosah ha'Mezimasah." (They were Mezidim.)
Avraham: Perhaps the minority sinned!
Hash-m: "Ha'Rabim" (the majority sinned).
Avraham: The merit of circumcision should have saved them!
Hash-m: "U'Vesar Kodesh Ya'avru me'Alayich." (They abandoned circumcision.)
Avraham: Perhaps had You delayed the exile, they would have repented!
Hash-m: "Ki Ra'asechi Az Ta'alozi." (They rejoiced to sin. They would not have repented.)
Avraham put his hand on his head and was crying. Perhaps nothing will save them!
A Bas Kol: "Zayis Ra'anan... Kara Hash-m Shmech" - just like the greatness of olive trees is in the end (after many years, they bear fruit. Alternatively, no olives ripen early. All ripen at the end), also the greatness of Yisrael is in the end. (They will repent in the days of Moshi'ach.)
(R. Chanina bar Papa): "L'Kol ha'Mulah Gedolah... v'Ra'u Daliyosav" - the Milim (words) of the Meraglim made the weak of Yisrael falter;
(R. Chanina bar Papa): The Meraglim said a great blasphemy. We explain "Ki Chazak Hu Mimenu (the Kena'anim in Eretz Yisrael are stronger than us)" to mean than Him, as if the Master cannot enter His own house!
Objection: (R. Chiya b'Rebbi Chanina): If so (the blasphemous word made them falter), it should say 'l'Kol ha'Milah Gedolah'!
Rather, Hash-m told Avraham 'I heard your voice; Chamalti (I had mercy. Chamalti is like 'ha'Mulah', for 'Hei' and 'Ches' are interchangeable);
(Initially, it was fixed how long Yisrael must be exiled under each of the four kingdoms.) I had decided that they will suffer under each like the total amount decreed for all four. Now I revert to the initial quota of each.
Some explain, I had decided that they will suffer under each one after the other. Now I will cause that the exiles overlap (Yisrael will be scattered, some under one kingdom, and others under another.)
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Yisrael are compared to an olive tree. Just like an olive tree does not drop its leaves in winter or summer, Yisrael is never Batel, not in this world, nor in the world to come.
(R. Yochanan): Yisrael are compared to olives. Just like olives do not give their oil until they are pressed, Yisrael do not repent until they are afflicted.
HOW TO FERMENT MENACHOS
(Mishnah - R. Meir): We take some flour from the Isaron...(R. Yehudah says... Chachamim say, if so, there will be too much or too little flour!)
Question: When is there too much, and when is there too little?
Answer (Rav Chisda): If the Se'or was kneaded thickly (with little water, it has more flour per unit volume than pure flour), so there will be too much flour in the Minchah;
If it was kneaded thinly (with much water), there will be too little flour.
Question: In any case, the measure was filled to an Isaron!
Answer (Rabah and Rav Yosef): The original volume of the flour (i.e. when it was flour) must be an Isaron. Since the Se'or helped fill the measure, we are lacking (or have an excess of) the difference in volume of the Se'or and its flour.
Version #1 - Question: Why don't we fill the Isaron with flour, take some out, ferment it (by putting it in a hot place, or amidst Chametz) and knead it with the rest!
Answer: We decreed not to, lest one who sees this add 'outside' Se'or to a full Isaron of flour.
Version #2 - Question: Why don't we put (old) Se'or in the Isaron, fill the rest with flour, take some flour out, knead it with the same amount of water as the Se'or, return it and measure the difference? Surely, its volume changed like the Se'or. We now know how much flour we must add or take away!
Answer: We decreed not to, lest one who sees this take flour from outside the Isaron, knead it and add it to the Isaron.