THE AMOUNT OF OIL IN CHAVITIM
Answer #4 (Rava): "Al Machavas" teaches that they must be cooked in a Kli Shares;
The Kli is Mekadesh. If they were cooked the previous day, they would be Nifsalim due to Linah.
Support (for Rava - Beraisa): "Al Machavas" teaches that they must be cooked in a Kli Shares;
"Ba'Shemen" teaches that we add extra oil to them.
Question: How do we know how much to add?
Answer #1: Here it says 'Shemen', like it says about Minchas Nesachim (for a lamb). Just like there, there are three Lugim (of oil) for an Isaron (of flour), also here.
Question: It also says 'Shemen' regarding Minchas Nedavah. Perhaps we should learn from there, that there is only one Log for an Isaron!
Answer: It is more reasonable to learn from Minchas Nesachim, for this resembles Chavitim regarding TaBSHaT, i.e. Tadir (or Tamid, both are brought twice daily), Ba'ah Chovah (there is an obligation to bring them; Rashi's text omits this; the acronym is TaShaT), and both are Docheh Shabbos and Tum'ah.)
Rejection: Perhaps we learn from Minchas Nedavah, for this resembles Chavitim regarding YaGYL, i.e. a Yachid (individual) brings them, they are brought Galal Atzmo (on their own accord), they are not brought with Yayin (Rashi's text omits this; the acronym is YaGaL), and they are brought with Levonah.
Answer #2 (R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah): "Soles Minchas Tamid" - Chavitim are like Minchas Tamid. It has three Lugim of oil for an Isaron.
Answer #3 (R. Shimon): The Torah taught that Chavitim are made with extra oil, just like the Minchas Keves (Nesachim brought with a lamb);
Just like Minchas Keves is three Lugim per Isaron, also Chavitim.
Question: The Torah taught that also Menachos brought with bulls and rams are made with extra oil, i.e. two Lugim per Isaron. Perhaps we should learn from them!
Answer: It is more reasonable to learn [Chavitim, which are from] one Isaron from [the Minchah for a lamb, which is] one Isaron, than from [that for a ram or bull, which is] two or three Esronim.
Question: The Tana learned from "ba'Shemen" that we add extra oil to them. How can he later suggest learning from Minchas Nedavah (which has the minimal amount of oil?)
Answer #1 (Abaye): R. Shimon is the first Tana. He learns from "ba'Shemen" that we add extra oil. He gave Answer #3 above. He did not suggest learning from Minchas Nedavah (Question 3:i);
R. Yishmael interrupted and suggested this, for he does not expound 'ba'Shemen' like R. Shimon.
Answer #2 (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): R. Yishmael taught the entire Reisha:
First he assumed that ba'Shemen teaches that we add extra oil, since we do not need it to teach one Log;
We know one Log from "Al Machavas" - it is like Minchas Machavas.
Later, he retracted. We cannot learn from "Al Machavas", for one might have thought that Chavitim are dry, like Minchas Chotei. Therefore, we need ba'Shemen to teach one Log;
Therefore, he suggested learning from Minchas Nedavah, i.e. only one Log!
He tried to show that it is more reasonable to learn from Minchas Nesachim, but failed (for there are just as many similarities to Minchas Nedavah).
Therefore, he needs to learn from "Soles Minchas Tamid."
Answer #3 (Rabah): R. Shimon taught the entire Reisha:
Really, ba'Shemen teaches that we add extra oil, since we do not need it to teach one Log. We know one Log from "Al Machavas", it is like Minchas Machavas.
He asks (rhetorically), why do we need ba'Shemen to teach about extra oil? Even without this, we would learn from Minchas Nesachim!
He then shows that it is just as reasonable to learn from Minchas Nedavah, therefore we need ba'Shemen.
Finally, he asks why we learn from Minchas Keves (and not from bulls or rams). He answers that it is more reasonable to learn one Isaron from one Isaron...
WHO PAYS FOR CHAVITIM WHEN THERE IS NO KOHEN GADOL?
(Mishnah) Question: If (the Kohen Gadol died after offering half in the morning, and) a new Kohen was not appointed, who supplies the Chavitim (until a new Kohen is appointed)?
Answer #1 (R. Shimon): The Tzibur pays for it (from Terumas ha'Lishkah);
Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): The heirs pay for it.
A full Isaron is brought.
(Gemara - Beraisa) Question: If the Kohen Gadol died and a new Kohen was not appointed, what is the source that his heirs supply the Chavitim?
Answer #1 (R. Yehudah): "Veha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach Tachtav mi'Banav Ya'aseh Osah."
Suggestion: Perhaps it is offered in halves (like when the Kohen Gadol was alive)!
Rejection: "Osah" - all is offered (at once), not half at a time.
Answer #2 (R. Shimon): "Chok Olam" - it is offered from the Tzibur;
"Kalil Taktar" - it is entirely Huktar.
Question: "Veha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach..." teaches something else!
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Zeh Korban Aharon u'Vanav Asher Yakrivu la'Shem b'Yom Himashach Oso" equates Aharon and his children! (Aharon brings this Korban on the day of his inauguration, just like his children.)
Rejection: "Asher Yakrivu la'Shem" - Aharon brings by himself, and his children bring by themselves. (If every Kohen were the same, it would have said Yakriv (singular), just like b'Yom Himashach Oso (on the day of his inauguration) is singular. Rather, the plural teaches that (only) his children bring only on their first day. The verse procedes to say "Tamid" to teach that Aharon brings this Minchah every day.)
'Banav' refers to regular Kohanim.
Question: Perhaps it refers to Kohanim Gedolim (after Aharon)!
Rejection: "Veha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach Tachtav mi'Banav" refers to Kohanim Gedolim, so 'Banav' must refer to regular Kohanim.
Answer: If "Veha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach..." taught only that heirs bring the Chavitim, it should have said '...Tachtav Banav Ya'asu Osah';
Rather, it says "Tachtav mi'Banav" to teach both laws.
Question: How does R. Shimon expound "Osah"?
Answer: This teaches that if the Kohen Gadol died (after offering half in the morning) and a new Kohen was appointed, in the afternoon he may not bring (only) half, nor offer the half remaining from the morning. (Rather, he must bring a full Isaron.)
Question: We learn this from: "u'Machatzisah ba'Erev"!
Answer: R. Shimon does not expound the 'Vov'.
Question: How does R. Yehudah expound "Chok Olam"?
Answer: This Chok (Minchas Chinuch) applies forever.
Question: How does he expound "Kalil Taktar"?
Answer (Beraisa): The Torah teaches that Chavitei Kohen Gadol are entirely Huktar, then it forbids eating Minchas Kohen (Hedyot) with a Lav;
Question: What is the source that the first law (Kalil) applies to the latter (Minchas Kohen), and that the latter (a Lav against eating) applies to the first (Chavitim)?
Answer: A Gezerah Shavah "Kalil-Kalil" teaches that both laws apply to both Menachos.
ENACTMENTS OF BEIS DIN
Question: R. Shimon learned from verses that the Tzibur brings Chavitim (when there is no Kohen Gadol). However, he holds that this is only mid'Rabanan!
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): Beis Din made seven enactments (regarding paying for Korbanos or benefit from Hekdesh. The first is that if Reuven found an animal near Yerushalayim (perhaps it is a lost Korban) and wanted to bring Korban(os) on behalf of the loser, Reuven must bring the Nesachim.
At first, Beis Din would take a security from Reuven. Due to this, finders would flee. They enacted that the Tzibur brings the Nesachim. The Gemara now brings the other enactments.)
If a Nochri sent an Olah to be offered in the Mikdash and (money for) its Nesachim, we offer the Nesachim from his money;
If he sent an Olah without Nesachim, the Tzibur pays for the Nesachim.
If a convert died (without heirs) leaving over Zevachim -
If he left (money for) Nesachim, they are offered. If not, the Tzibur pays for the Nesachim.
If the Kohen Gadol died and a new Kohen was not appointed, the Tzibur supplies the Chavitim.
Answer (R. Avahu): There were two enactments (about Chavitim):
Mid'Oraisa, the Tzibur pays for it. This was depleting the Shekalim (for Korbanos Tzibur. In Bayis Sheni, almost every Kohen Gadol died in his first year), so they enacted to take the money from the Kohen's heirs;
Chachamim saw that the heirs were negligent (about bringing it), so they reverted to Torah law.
(Continuation of Mishnah): They enacted that Me'ilah does not apply to the ashes of Parah Adumah;
Question: That is a Torah law!
(Beraisa): "Chatas Hi" teaches that Me'ilah applies to the Parah;
"Hi" teaches that Me'ilah applies to it, but not to its ashes.