[64a - 47 lines; 64b - 37 lines]
1a)[line 15]ליכא פרסומי מילתאLEIKA PIRSUMEI MILSA- [here (with regard to the reaping the grain for the Omer)], there is no [difference with regard to the] publicity of the matter [between reaping five Se'in or three Se'in]
b)[line 15]אבל התם דאיכא פרסומי מילתאAVAL HASAM D'IKA PIRSUMEI MILSA- but there, there is [a difference with regard to the] publicity of the matter [between reaping the grain for the Omer by one individual or by three individuals] (and it is very possible that Rebbi Yishmael agrees with the Chachamim, that it is reaped by three individuals)
2a)[line 22]בין שנראה בעלילBEIN SHE'NIR'EH BA'ALIL- whether [the new moon] can be seen clearly [such that one may presume that the judges of Beis Din themselves have surely seen it]
b)[line 22]בין שלא נראה בעלילBEIN SHE'LO SHE'NIR'EH BA'ALIL- or whether it cannot be seen clearly [and there is reason to think that the testimony of these witnesses is neccesary]
3)[line 22]מחללין עליו את השבתMECHALELIN ALAV ES HA'SHABBOS - it is permitted for the witnesses to desecrate the Shabbos to travel to Beis Din to testify about the sighting of the new moon (KIDUSH BEIS DIN / KIDUSH HA'CHODESH - the declaration that Beis Din makes to proclaim the new month)
(a)The Hebrew calendar month, which determines the Jewish holidays, begins with each new revolution of the moon, at the point after it wanes completely and begins to wax anew.
(b)When the Sanhedrin of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "Supreme Court") convened in Eretz Yisrael, the new month was fixed and sanctified according to the testimony of witnesses. A person who sees the moon (as it begins to grow and is just visible) traveled to the Sanhedrin, or to a Beis Din appointed by the Sanhedrin, to testify. It is permitted for the witnesses to desecrate the Shabbos to travel to Beis Din to testify about the sighting of the new moon (Rosh Hashanah 21b). The place where the Beis Din convened to accept testimony was known as the Beis ha'Va'ad. Beis Din cross-examined the witnesses there, and when they were convinced of the accuracy of the testimonies, they announced the beginning of the new month.
(c)Today, mathematical calculations are used to determine the beginning of the new month. According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 5:2) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai to determine the beginning of the month mathematically when there is no Sanhedrin, and through testimony when there is one.
4a)[line 25]ליכא "נמצאת אתה מכשילן לעתיד לבא"LEIKA "NIMTZEIS ATAH MACHSHILAN LE'ASID LA'VO"- [here (with regard to the reaping the grain for the Omer)], there is no problem of "You will find that you are creating an obstacle for them in the future" (Rosh Hashanah 21b)
b)[line 26]אבל התם דנמצאת אתה מכשילן לעתיד לבאAVAL HASAM D'NIMTZEIS ATAH MACHSHILAN LE'ASID LA'VO- but there, where there is a problem of "You will find that you are creating an obstacle for them in the future," since witnesses may not travel to give testimony in the future even if the monn is not clearly visible if you prevent them from traveling when the moon is clearly visible, it is very possible that Rebbi Yishmael agrees with the Chachamim, that the witnesses are permitted to be Mechalel Shabbos even when the moon is clearly visible
5a)[line 27]ליכא צורך גבוהLEIKA TZORECH GAVO'AH- there is no necessity for the Korbanos (lit. necessity for On High)
b)[line 27]לא ניתנה שבת לדחותLO NITNAH SHABBOS LI'DACHOS- it is not permitted to desecrate Shabbos (when the moon is clearly visible)
6a)[line 28]איכא צורך גבוהIKA TZORECH GAVO'AH- there is a necessity for the Korbanos [if five Se'in is actually the better initial quantity for the Omer]
b)[line 28]וניתנה שבת לדחותV'NITNAH SHABBOS LIDACHOS- and it is permitted to "push aside" the prohibitions of Shabbos in order to prepare the grain for the Minchas ha'Omer
c)[line 28]אימא כרבנן ס''לEIMA K'RABANAN SEVIRA LEI- it is possible to say that Rebbi Yosi agrees with the Chachamim with regard to the Omer (in that we do not limit the quantity reaped on Shabbos, whether it is three or five Se'in)
7)[line 29]חטאות של ציבורCHATA'OS SHEL TZIBUR- Korbenos Chatas of the community, e.g. if he slaughtered two animals as Korbenos Chatas instead of one (a Korban Chatas is part of the Musaf sacrifice when Rosh Chodesh or Chol ha'Mo'ed fall on Shabbos), thinking that it is permitted to offer two Korbanos since they are Korbenos Tzibur (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #12)
8)[line 31]כחושהKECHUSHAH- weak, withered and unfit to be brought as a Korban
9)[line 34]סמי כחושהSAMI KECHUSHAH MI'KAMAISA- withdraw the case of Kechushah from the first statement of Rabah (line 30)
10)[line 35]בני מעייןBNEI ME'AYIN- the innards
11)[line 36]לאיסורא קא מיכויןL'ISURA KA MICHAVEIN- (lit. he intended to transgress a prohibition) since he intentionally slaughtered the second animal before the first one was found to be Kechushah, he is liable to bring a Korban Chatas for unintentionally assuming that it is permitted to slaughter two Korbenos Chatas (RASHI)
12)[line 36]בתר מעשיו אזלינןBASAR MA'ASAV AZLINAN- we rule according to his actions (and the first animal was unfit to be brought as a Korban, so he is not liable for slaughtering the second animal)
13)[line 36]לאו היינו דרבהLAV HAINU D'RABAH V'RAVA?- Does this not depend upon the argument of Rabah and Rava [with regard to Piku'ach Nefesh, saving the life of a baby that is drowning, in which case both Rabah and Rava would rule that the person who slaughters the second animal is liable for his intentions]? (RASHI)
14)[line 37]פרש מצודהPARAS METZUDAH- he spread out a fishing net
15)[line 40][לאו] היינו פלוגתייהו דרבה ורבא[LAV] HAINU PELUGTAIHU D'RABAH V'RAVA?- Does this not depend upon the argument of Rabah and Rava [where Rabah would rule that he is not liable, since we follow his actions, and Rava would rule that he is liable for his intentions]? (RASHI)
16)[line 43]שאמדוהו לגרוגרת אחתSHE'AMDUHU LI'GEROGERES ACHAS- about whom it was estimated [that in order to recover from his life-threatening illness, he needs to eat] one fig [on Shabbos,] (that needs to be picked from the tree, a Melachah that desecrates the Shabbos) (even though a Grogeres is a dried fig, it is obvious that the Gemara is referring to a fresh fruit that is still on the tree, unless the possibility exists that the fruit has dried while the stem is still fresh - YA'AVETZ)
17)[line 46]שתי עוקציןSHTEI UKTZIN- two stems
18a)[line 1]דכי ממעט באכילהD'CHI MEMA'ET B'ACHILAH- that when we reap less grain (lit. when we eat less)
b)[line 2]קא ממעט קצירהKA MEMA'ET KETZIRAH- we lessen the prohibitions of reaping on Shabbos
19a)[line 2]הכא דכי קא ממעט באכילהHACHA D'CHI KA MEMA'ET B'ACHILAH- here, when we pick less fruit (the two figs on two stems)
b)[line 3]קא מפשא קצירהKA MAFSHA KETZIRAH- we increase the prohibitions of reaping on Shabbos (cutting two stems instead of the one stem that holds three fruits)
20)[line 5]הקרובHA'KAROV- the [grain that is] closer [to Yerushalayim]
21)[line 5]לא ביכר הקרוב לירושליםLO BIKER HA'KAROV LI'YERUSHALAYIM- if the [grain that is] closer to Yerushalayim did not ripen
22)[line 6]מכל מקוםMI'KOL MAKOM- from any place in Eretz Yisrael (see Mishnah to Daf 83b)
23)[line 7]גגות צריפיןGAGOS TZERIFIN- a town that was located in the coastal plain of Eretz Yisrael, near the modern-day Ramleh
24)[line 7]בקעת עין סוכרBIK'AS EIN SOCHER- the valley of Ein Socher, a fertile valley in the Shomron near Shechem, believed to be near the modern-day Arab village of 'Askar
25)[line 9]כרמלKARMEL- since it needs to be fresh, soft grain that will dry out if brought from a distant location
26)[line 9]אין מעבירין על המצותEIN MA'AVIRIN AL HA'MITZVOS - (lit. we do not pass over the Mitzvos)
When an object with which a Mitzvah is to be performed lies in front of a person, it is not proper to pass by this object without performing the Mitzvah (and to perform the Mitzvah, instead, with another object).
27a)[line 11]כשצרו מלכי בית חשמונאי זה על זהKESHE'TZARU MALCHEI BEIS CHASHMONA'I ZEH AL ZEH- when one of the two brothers Hyrkanus and Aristobulus (two of the last descendents of the Hasmonean kings), laid siege to the other one (there are two contradictory sources as to who laid siege to whom; the next entry follows the Girsa of our Gemara and that in Sotah (49b)) in order to capture the throne
b)[line 11]מלכי בית חשמונאיMALCHEI BEIS CHASHMONA'I (THE CIVIL WAR)
(a)Before Yochanan Kohen Gadol (Yochanan Hyrkanus), the grandson of Matisyahu, died, he commanded that his reign as ruler of the land of Yehudah be passed on to his wife. However, his son Yehudah Aristobulus, paid no attention to his father's testament. He imprisoned his mother and brothers, except for one brother named Antigonus and seized power for himself. He appointed Antigonus as head of the army. Aristobulus was the first Hasmonean ruler to call himself "king"; all of his predecessors had the title of "prince." He was hostile to the Sages, and pursued them with ruthlessness. He ruled over Yehudah for only one year and died childless in the year 3658 (103 BCE).
(b)He was succeeded by his widow, Queen Shlomtziyon or Shelomis [Salome] Alexandra, a sister of Shimon Ben Shetach, the leading sage of the period, to whom she was loyal even when married to an archenemy of the sages. After her husband died, she freed his brothers from prison. The oldest brother, Alexander Yanai, performed Yibum with her, and later succeeded his dead brother to the throne.
(c)Under the influence of his wife, Yanai halted the suppression of the Perushim and the Sages for a time, so that he could pursue the war against the hostile Nochri enclave in the Land of Yisrael. He did this throughout most of the twenty-seven years of his reign, motivated by lust for battle and glory. As time went on, however, he used the foreign soldiers in his army to suppress his own people and hunt down the Perushim. His reign lasted until either 3684 or 3685 (77 or 76 BCE).
(d)During the next 11 years, when Shelomis was queen, peace and tranquility reigned in the land. It was the only golden era during the time of the Second Temple. The last testament of Queen Shelomis declared Hyrkanus, her firstborn son, to be the legal ruler of the land, but he held power for only three months. Her younger son Aristobulus put together a large army and fought his brother near Yericho. Aristobulus won the battle and Hyrkanus abdicated the throne and withdrew from public life. But Antipater the Edomite provoked Hyrkanus into reopening the war against his brother. They asked Aretas, the Arab king of the Nabateans, for support, and marched with a large army to the gates of Yerushalayim. Hyrkanus's supporters let him into the city, forcing Aristobulus and his soldiers to retreat behind the massive fortifications of the Temple Mount. Aristobulus's forces demolished the bridge that connected the Temple mount with the Upper City of Yerushalayim, leaving a deep valley between themselves and the attackers.
(e)At this time the Roman general Pompey was conquering the lands of Asia Minor one after the other. In 63 BCE Hyrkanus and Aristobulus turned to Pompey's proconsul in Damascus to intervene in their dispute. Rome's representatives were notorious for their greed, and when the messengers of Aristobulus offered the larger bribe, the Roman proconsul decided in his favor. King Aretas and Hyrkanus were commanded to lift the siege and leave Yerushalayim.
(f)When Pompey returned to Damascus after completing his victorious military campaigns, the two brothers appeared before him. Because Pompey was interested in imposing the imperial rule of Rome upon the land of Judea, he preferred Hyrkanus, the weaker and more submissive of the two brothers, and declared him to be both king and Kohen Gadol. He also commanded that Aristobulus surrender all the fortresses of the country. Aristobulus meekly capitulated to his demands. His men, however, decided to defend the city against the approaching Roman army. Hyrkanus's men opened the city gates for Pompey, while Aristobulus and his soldiers withdrew behind the fortifications of Har ha'Bayis. Eventually, the Romans succeeded in breaching the walls of Har ha'Bayis. Some 12,000 Kohanim and defenders were killed. Aristobulus and his two sons and two daughters were taken as captives to Rome for a victory procession before the Roman populace. One of Aristobulus's sons managed to escape and returned to his homeland to encourage the people to continue their resistance against the invaders.
(g)Pompey thus put an end to Judean political independence and imposed a tax upon the land. The coastal cities, as well as the cities of Transjordan, were excluded from Jewish rule. All that remained of the Jewish State was Judea, part of Edom, the Galilee and a narrow stretch of land in the south of Transjordan. Even in this limited territory Jewish rule was not sovereign, for it came under the jurisdiction of the Roman proconsul in Damascus.
(from The History of the Jewish People/The Second Temple Era, Artscroll Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, 1982, adapted by Rabbi Hersh Goldwurm from Dr. E. Ebner's translation of Yekusiel Friedner's Divrei Yemei ha'Bayis ha'Sheni, Pages 103 - 107)
28a)[line 12]מבחוץMIBA'CHUTZ- outside [of Yerushalayim]
b)[line 13]מבפניםMI'BIFNIM- inside [of Yerushalayim]
29)[line 14]משלשליןMESHALSHIN- they would lower down [to those outside of the city]
30)[line 15]חכמת יווניתCHOCHMAS YEVANIS- a sign language invented by the Greeks using non-verbal gestures
31)[line 16]לעז להםLA'AZ LAHEM- he communicated to them [in Chochmas Yevanis]
32)[line 19]נעץ צפרניו בחומהNA'ATZ TZIPORNAV BA'CHOMAH- it stuck its hoofs (lit. nails) into the wall
33)[line 20]נזדעזעהNIZDA'AZE'AH- trembled
34)[line 20]ארבע מאות פרסהARBA ME'OS PARSAH- 400 Persian miles, approximately 1459.2, 1536 or 1843.2 kilometers, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
35)[line 25]כי מטא עומרKI MATA OMER- when it came time to prepare for the Minchas ha'Omer
36)[line 25]לא הוו ידעי מהיכא אייתי עומרLO HAVU YAD'EI ME'HEICHA AISI OMER- they did not know from where to bring the grain from which to extract the flour for the Omer (since the armies outside of the city destroyed all of the crops in the surrounding areas; the MAHARSHA writes that all of the grain in Eretz Yisrael was destroyed because of the conflict)
37)[line 26]אכרזוACHREZU- the proclaimed [that anyone who knows the whereabouts of growing barley should inform the Rabanan in the Beis ha'Mikdash]
38)[line 26]אתא ההוא חרשאASA HA'HU CHARASHA- a certain mute came
39a)[line 26]אותיב חדא ידא אאיגראOSIV CHADA YADA A'IGRA- he put one hand on a roof
b)[line 27]וחדא ידיה אצריפאV'CHADA YADA A'TZERIFA- and one hand on a willow hut
40)[line 27]אמר להו מרדכיAMAR LEHU MORDECHAI- Mordechai said to them (RASHI identifies him as the Mordechai of Megilas Esther, who eventually returned to Eretz Yisrael and was one of the appointed officials of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash. TOSFOS argues, since he would have had to be over three hundred years old, claiming that the position that he filled while he was alive was named "Mordechai" in his honor - but see YA'AVETZ.)
41)[line 28]מי איכא דוכתאMI IKA DUCHTA- Is there a place
42)[line 29]בדקו ואשכחוהBADKU V'ASHKECHUHA- they checked and found
43)[line 32]אעיניהA'EINEI- on his eye
44)[line 32]אסיכראA'SICHRA- on a (a) socket for a door bolt (RASHI, ARUCH); (b) a grave (TOSFOS, 1st additional explanation); (c) a dam of a river (TOSFOS, 2nd additional explanation)
45)[line 34]קיניןKININ- pairs [of doves or pigeons]
46a)[line 34]לזיבתיL'ZIVASI- lit. for my flow of Zivah (see below, entry #47)
b)[line 34]לימתיL'YAMASI- lit. for my sea (a euphemism for a flow of Zivah, that flows like a sea)
c)[line 35]לעונתיL'ONASI- lit. for my time (a euphemism for a flow of Zivah, since when it stops and the woman counts seven clean days, her time to bring the Korbenos Zavah has arrived)
47)[line 35]זבה ממשZAVAH MAMASH - an actual Zavah (KORBAN ZAVAH)
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Zevachim 93:6) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Bava Kama 24:5:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Temei'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a "Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom," because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah on the day following the seven clean days to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).
48)[line 35]ימתי ממשYAMASI MAMASH- my sea, actually (a euphemism for a flow of Zivah, that flows like a sea)
49)[line 35]לעונתה [ממש]L'ONASAH [MAMASH]- for her [actual] time [to bring the Korbenos Zavah]
50)[line 36]חדא חטאת וחדא עולהCHADA CHATAS V'CHADA OLAH- one as a Korban Chatas ha'Of and one as a Korban Olas ha'Of
51)[line 36]בזוב סיכנהB'ZOV SIKNAH- (a) her life was threatened due to her flow of Zivah (RASHI); (b) a wolf threatened to carry off her son (YEFEH EINAYIM, citing the YERUSHALMI Shekalim 2:2)
52)[last line]בים סיכנהBA'YAM SIKNAH- her life was threatened when she was at sea
53)[last line]בעינה סיכנהB'EINAH SIKNAH- her life was threatened by an eye infection
54)[last line]עולות נינהוOLOS NINHU- they are all Korbenos Olas ha'Of, which these women pledged to offer to HaSh-m, should He save them from their life-threatening situations
55)[last line](בדוק ואשכח) [בדקו ואשכחו](BADUK V'ASHKACH) [BADKU V'ASHKECHU]- they checked and found out that Mordechai's guess was actually the truth