[50a - 44 lines; 50b - 48 lines]
1)[line 1]תנא בעלמא קאיTANA B'ALMA KAI- the Tana is stating a general rule that applies throughout the year (and not specifically to Rosh ha'Shanah followed by or preceded by Shabbos - RASHI)
2)[line 3]כדי לשבתKEDEI L'SHABBOS- for a time equivalent to Shabbos
3)[line 7]חינוך מאן דכר שמיה?CHINUCH MAN DACHAR SHMEI?- Who mentioned the inauguration [of the Mizbechos, Shulchan, and other utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash such that the Mishnah began to discuss it]?
4)[line 8]חסורי מיחסראCHISUREI MECHSERA V'HACHI KA'TANI (Amending the Meaning of a Mishnah or Beraisa)
(a)In order to answer a question posed from a Mishnah or Beraisa, the Gemara will sometimes explain that we have not understood the Mishnah or Beraisa correctly. The Gemara will say "Chisurei Mechsera v'Hachi ka'Tani" - "Words are missing, and it should be read as follows" - and then add words to the Mishnah or Beraisa which allow it to be read differently, thereby answering the question.
(b)The YAD MALACHI (Kelalei ha'Ches, #284) writes that the Gemara will sometimes use "Chisurei Mechsera" to change the original understanding of the Mishnah or Beraisa to one that expresses the opposite ruling. He then quotes the HALICHOS OLAM (2:2) as stating that the Gemara will not go that far, but will rather add to or adjust the original explanation of the Mishnah. The Yad Malachi cites the Gemara in Sanhedrin (12b), however, as proof of his opinion.
(c)How are we to understand that the Tana seemingly forgot to include such integral information? The VILNA GA'ON (end of Divrei Eliyahu, section entitled "Kelalim") explains that the use of "Chisurei Mechsera" does not reject the original reading of the Beraisa. The original reading may be read to mean what the Gemara understands in its final explanation, or it may be teaching a different point altogether (RABEINU BACHYA writes similarly in his commentary to Shemos 34:27). The BEIS YOSEF (in "Kelalei d'Gemara", Halichos Olam 2:41) explains that these teachings were originally given over in this fashion. Rebbi, who edited much of the Mishnah, recorded them in the Mishnah as they were, expecting those who learned them to fill in the "blanks" on their own. The TIFERES YISRAEL (Boaz to Erchin 4:1) explains that a special tune was utilized when learning Mishnayos and Beraisos to help one commit them to memory (a method used even today in some schools in Eretz Yisrael). The Tana would therefore use wording that fit with the tune even if it rendered the meaning less clear. The Tiferes Yisrael explains that the Tana knew that the true explanation would be apparent to anyone who studied the topic well, as evidenced by that which the Gemara is able to arrive at the proper understanding. (This explanation would appear to be at odds with the explanation of the Vilna Gaon above)
(d)The Gemara will sometimes correct the wording of a Mishnah or Beraisa with the word "Teni ..." ("teach") or "Eima ..." ("say"). Many Rishonim (e.g., RAN to Nedarim 46a) explain that these terms are used to explain the Tana's statement, as opposed to amending it. Similarly, the Gemara will sometimes answer a question by insisting that the Mishnah or Beraisa taught its ruling wherein the person involved verbally expressed a certain qualification. In such situations the Gemara will explain, "b'Omer ..." ("in a case where he said ..."). Here too, many Rishonim explain that the Gemara means that even if he did not actually express such a qualification, it is as if he did (e.g., TOSFOS to Yevamos 25b DH b'Omer).
5)[line 10]שלא נתחנך המזבחSHE'LO NISCHANECH HA'MIZBE'ACH- when the Mizbe'ach had not been inaugurated [yet]
6)[line 11]יקריבו בין הערביםYAKRIVU BEIN HA'ARBAYIM- they may offer the Korban Tamid in the afternoon (that is, one animal is offered as the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - TOSFOS DH ba'Meh)
7a)[line 12]אנוסיןANUSIN- being forced not to offer the Korban
b)[line 12]שוגגיןSHOGEGIN- unintentionally neglecting to offer the Korban
c)[line 13]מזידיןMEZIDIN- intentionally neglecting to offer the Korban
8)[line 23]וכי כהנים חטאו, מזבח בטל?V'CHI KOHANIM CHAT'U, MIZBE'ACH BATEL?- [If] the Kohanim are lax and [intentionally neglect to offer the Korban Tamid, should this be a reason to leave] the Mizbe'ach inactive?
9)[line 26]דלא שכיחאD'LO SHECHICHA- (a) it is infrequent that the Kohanim intentionally neglect to offer the Ketores (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the Ketores is offered less frequently than Olos (burnt offerings), and as such, it is more cherished by the Kohanim (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) it is not done frequently by one person, since the Kohanim were particular to only allow each Kohen one chance in a lifetime to offer the Ketores, since the Kohen who offers it becomes rich through a special blessing (RASHI, 3rd explanation)
10)[line 26]מעתראME'ASRA- it causes [the Kohen who offers it] to become rich
11)[line 26]חביבא להוCHAVIVA LEHU- it is more cherished by them
12)[line 26]ולא פשעיV'LO FASH'EI- they will not be negligent
13)[line 32]"[וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים;] בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר, בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת הַנֵּרֹת, יַקְטִירֶנָּה.""... BA'BOKER BA'BOKER, B'HETIVO ES HA'NEROS, YAKTIRENAH."- "[And Aharon ha'Kohen shall burn on it (the Golden Mizbe'ach) the Ketores (incense) [made] of spices;] every morning, when he is replenishing the lamps, he shall burn it." (Shemos 30:7)
14)[line 34]הדלקהHADLAKAH (HATAVAS HA'NEROS)
(a)Every evening a Kohen lights the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is called Hadlakas ha'Neros. Enough oil is put into the Menorah's lamps to burn until the morning.
(b)In the morning, a Kohen would clean out the burned wicks and leftover oil that remained in the Menorah's lamps, and replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. This is what the Torah, and the Mishnah, calls Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah. The spent wicks were placed in the same pile of ashes near the ramp of the Mizbe'ach into which the Terumas ha'Deshen was placed.
(c)The cleaning of the lamps was done in two stages. First the Kohen would clean five of the lamps of the Menorah, then he would wait while other services of the Mikdash were done, and only afterwards would he complete the job and clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah.
(The above description is based on the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim. However, others assert that some or all of the lamps of the Menorah were lit in the morning as well, or that the Menorah was cleaned in a single step, according to some Tana'im. Also, the process described is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning by the morning. The Tana'im argue as to which service was done between the cleaning of the first five and the last two lamps. For more information, see Yoma 14a, Chart #2.)
15)[line 34]מאורתאME'URTA- from the previous night
16)[line 34]הטבה בצפרא מהיכא?HATAVAH B'TZAFRA ME'HEICHA?- from where would there be a need to replenish the lamps in the morning?
17)[line 37]איחנוכי הוא דלא מחנךICHNUCHEI HU D'LO MICHANECH- it cannot be inaugurated [on a weekday]
18)[line 37]הא קדושי מיקדיש?HA KEDUSHEI MIKDISH?- but does it consecrate [the Lechem ha'Panim if they are placed there on a weekday as the inauguration of the Shulchan (the Golden Table)]?
19)[line 39](זהו) [זו היא] קטרת שעלתה ליחיד(ZEHU) [ZO HI] KETORES SHE'ALSAH L'YACHID- this is the Ketores that was offered (lit. went up) by individuals
20)[line 39]מזבח החיצוןMIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON- on the outer Mizbe'ach, that stood in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash
21)[line 40]הוראת שעה היתהHORA'AS SHA'AH HAYESAH- it was an enactment that applied only at that specific time
22)[line 40]נשיאיםNESI'IM- the princes of the tribes of Yisrael, who offered inauguration sacrifices for the Mishkan in the desert (Bamidbar 7:1-88)
23)[line 41]מזבח הפנימיMIZBE'ACH HA'PENIMI- the inner (Golden) Mizbe'ach in the Kodesh section of the Mishkan and the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Shemos 30:1-10), upon which the incense was burned
24)[line 42]מתנדבMISNADEV- dedicate to Hekdesh (to the Beis ha'Mikdash)
25)[line 43]"מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ, כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַה' אֱלֹקֶיךָ נְדָבָה, אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ.""MOTZA SEFASECHA TISHMOR V'ASISA, [KA'ASHER NADARTA LA'SH-M ELOKECHA NEDAVAH...]"- "That which emerges from your lips you shall observe and perform, [according to what you have vowed to HaSh-m your G-d an offering, anything that you have promised with your mouth.]" (Devarim 23:24)
26)[line 43]"לֹא תַעֲלוּ עָלָיו קְטֹרֶת זָרָה ...""LO SA'ALU ALAV KETORES ZARAH"- "You shall not offer upon it strange incense..." (Shemos 30:9) - It is prohibited to burn upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav any incense that is not ordained by the Torah.
27)[line 1]חובה כיוצא בהCHOVAH KA'YOTZEI VAH- [because the public brings] obligatory Ketores [on the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi] like it
28)[line 2]"לא תעלו""LO SA'ALU"- "Do not offer [upon it]" (Shemos 30:9) - The word "Sa'alu" in this verse is in the plural, and as such, it precludes the public from offering voluntary Ketores on the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi
29)[line 7]דלא אשכחןD'LO ASHKECHAN- since we do not find [any instance of the public offering incense on the outer Mizbe'ach]
30)[line 11]חביתי כ''גCHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL (MINCHAS CHAVITIN)
(a)The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM; our Gemara brings Amoraic and Tanaic arguments that offer different methods of preparing the Chavitin). Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:13). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin was one Revi'is, a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.
(b)An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:13). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).
31)[line 12]עשרון שלםISARON SHALEM- a full Isaron, the amount of flour needed for most Menachos, approximately equal to 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
32)[line 12]חוצהוCHOTZEHU- he divides it (the flour) in half
33)[line 14]מינוMINU- and they appointed
34)[line 17]מחצה אבדMECHETZAH AVED- half of it is left until the morning when it is invalidated through Linah and is then burned (lit. lost)
35)[line 22]"... מַחֲצִיתָהּ בַּבֹּקֶר, (וּמַחֲצִיתָהּ בָּעָרֶב.)""... MACHATZISAH BA'BOKER, (U'MACHATZISAH BA'AREV.)"- "half of [the twelve rolls of the Minchas Chavitin are offered] in the morning, (and half of it in the evening.)" (Vayikra 6:13) - The Girsa change is made by DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #7 and SHITAH MEKUBETZES #6.
36)[line 22]מחצה משלם הואMECHETZAH MI'SHALEM HU- it is half [of an Isaron] taken out of a whole [Isaron]
37)[line 35]מחצה בבקר ומחצה שניMECHETZAH RISHON U'MECHETZAH SHENI- the first half (that needs to be destroyed, i.e. the second half-Isaron left over from the Kohen Gadol who died) and the second half (that needs to be destroyed, i.e. the second half-Isaron left over from the Minchah of the newly-appointed Kohen Gadol)
38)[line 36]איחזי להקרבהICHAZI L'HAKRAVAH- it is fit for being offered
39)[line 37]מעיקרא לאיבוד קא אתיME'IKARA L'IBUD KA ASI- it was destined to be destroyed from the beginning
40)[line 39]דבעידנא (דפלגי בהו) [דפלגינהו]DEB'IDNA (D'FALGEI VEHU) [D'FALGINHU]- that at the time that he divides it
41)[line 39]אי בעי האי מקריב ואי בעי האי מקריבIY BA'I HAI MAKRIV V'IY BA'I HAI MAKRIV- if he wants he may offer either half
42)[line 39]מיחזא חזוMEICHZA CHAZU- [both Chatza'ei Isaron] are considered fit [to be offered]
43)[line 40]אופהOFEH- he bakes them
44)[line 41]מטגנהMETAGNAH- he fries them
45)[line 42]"[עַל מַחֲבַת בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה, מֻרְבֶּכֶת תְּבִיאֶנָּה;] תֻּפִינֵי [מִנְחַת פִּתִּים, תַּקְרִיב רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַה'.]""[AL MACHAVAS BA'SHEMEN TE'ASEH, MURBECHES TEVI'ENAH;] TUFINEI [MINCHAS PITIM, TAKRIV RE'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M.]"- "[In a pan it shall be made with oil, you shall bring it scalded; a] well-baked (or repeatedly baked) [flour offering broken into pieces shall you offer, for a pleasing [offering] to HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 6:14)
46)[line 42]תאפינה נאהTE'AFENAH NA'EH- bake it when it is pleasant (and not blackened by the frying pan)
47)[line 43]תאפינה נאTE'AFENAH NA- bake it when it is undercooked (i.e. fried - RASHI; it is possible that frying is termed "undercooking" since the rolls were thick - YT)
48)[line 44]תאפינה רבהTE'AFENAH RABAH- (a) bake it repeatedly; it shall be baked, fried and baked (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) bake it large (i.e. a large round dough for each roll) after frying (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) according to the Girsa "TE'AFENAH RAKAH" - bake it soft after frying it with a large quantity of oil (that keeps it soft) (RASHI, 3rd explanation)
49a)[line 45]לישתןLISHASAN- their kneading
b)[line 45]עריכתןARICHASAN- shaping them into loaves
50)[line 45]בפניםBIFNIM- inside [of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
51)[line 46]אינשפהINASHFAH- it will dry out (RASHI)
52)[line 47]כביש ליה בירקאD'CHAVISH LEI B'YARKA- it is possible to cover them up with vegetables (and they will not dry out)