[42a - 56 lines; 42b - 48 lines]
1a)[line 1]שיעור למעלהSHI'UR L'MA'ALAH- maximum length
b)[line 1]שיעור למטהSHI'UR L'MATAH- minimum length
2)[line 4]כדי לנענע בוKEDEI L'NA'ANE'A BO- in order to be able to shake it
3)[line 7]ענףANAF- the hanging ends of the strings
4)[line 8]"[וישלח תבנית יד] ויקחני בציצית ראשי [ותשא אתי רוח בין הארץ ובין השמים ותבא אתי ירושלמה במראות אלקים אל פתח שער הפנימית הפונה צפונה אשר שם מושב סמל הקנאה המקנה]""[VA'YISHLACH TAVNIS YAD] VA'YIKACHENI B'TZITZIS ROSHI [VA'TISA OSI RU'ACH BEIN HA'ARETZ U'VEIN HA'SHAMAYIM VA'TAVEI OSI YERUSHALAIMAH B'MAR'OS ELOKIM EL PESACH SHA'AR HA'PENIMIS HA'PONEH TZAFONAH ASHER SHAM MOSHAV SEMEL HA'KIN'AH HA'MAKNEH]" - "[And He sent the shape of a hand] which took me by the hairs of my head, [and a wind carried me between the earth and the heavens, and brought me to Yerushalayim in a Divine vision, to the entrance of the inner-gate which faced the north, to the location of the image of jealousy that angered (HaSh-m)]" (Yechezkel 8:3) (Yechezekel's Vision of the Idolatrous Offenses Committed in the Beis ha'Mikdash)
A little over a year after his vision of the Merkavah, six years after Galus Yechonyah, Yechezkel is shown a vision of the Beis ha'Mikdash. In this vision, he sees the molten image that Menasheh placed in the Beis ha'Mikdash, as well as innumerable scenes of the idolatrous practices that the men and women of Yerushalayim perpetrated there, with the express intent to anger HaSh-m. Under the circumstances, HaSh-m's response was not surprising. Since they acted in this way to make Him angry, He would respond with fury, without pity, without mercy. They would cry out to Him, but He would not answer. Five years later, the Beis ha'Mikdash lay in ruins and the people were exiled to Bavel.
5)[line 9]וצריך לפרודהV'TZARICH LI'FERUDAH- and one must separate it (the hanging strings)
6)[line 9]כי צוציתא דארמאיKI TZUTZISA D'ARAMA'EI- like the locks of hair of the Arameans (the ends of which are separated), known as the Beloris, the long hair grown at the back of the head by idol-worshipping youths of the upper classes in honor of their gods, that was offered to their gods once a year
7)[line 10]הטיל על הקרןHITIL AL HA'KEREN- he placed the Tzitzis at the very edge of the garment's corner
8)[line 10]על הגדילAL HE'GEDIL- (a) on the Gedil, a thick, strong thread that is sewn at the edge of a garment to prevent the garment from tearing; (b) (O.F. orels) the warp (lengthwise) threads hanging from the edge of a garment
9)[line 13]נוטפת על הקרןNOTEFES AL HE'KEREN- hanging over the corner. (The Tzitzis strings must be hanging from the side of the garment such that they pass the corner of the garment as they hang down.)
10)[line 15]שירחיק מלא קשר גודלSHE'YARCHIK MELO KESHER GUDAL- one must distance [the hole through which the Tzitzis strings pass] the complete length of the joint of the thumb [from the edge of the garment] (this refers to the length of the thumb from the top of the nail to below the knuckle in the middle of the thumb)
11)[line 17]תוך ג' דלא לירחיק טפיTOCH SHALOSH D'LO LIRCHIK TEFEI- [we might have thought that the Tzitzis must be] within three [fingerbreadths] in order that it not be too far away [from the edge of the garment]
12)[line 18]וכמה דמקרב מעליV'CHAMAH DI'MEKAREV MA'ALEI- but the closer [it is to the edge of the garment] the better
13)[line 22]חזייהCHAZYEI- he saw
14)[line 22]לקרניה דגלימיהL'KARNEI DI'GELIMEI- the corners of his garment
15)[line 23]דסתר ובצר ממלא קשר גודלD'SASAR U'VATZAR MI'MELO KESHER GUDAL- (a) that [his garment] had torn and [the place at which the Tzitzis were attached] was less than the complete length of the joint of the thumb; (b) (O.F. esfiler - to fray) that [the fabric at the edge of the garment] had become frayed and there was less than the complete length of the joint of the thumb [until the place at which the Tzitzis were attached]
16)[line 24]בשעת עשייהBI'SHE'AS ASIYAH- at the time of making [of the Tzitzis, there was a proper distance from the edge of the garment to the point at which the Tzitzis were attached]
17)[line 25]איכסיףICHSIF- he (Rav Sama) was embarrassed
18)[line 25]לא תתקיף לךLO SASKIF LACH- do not let it rest heavily upon you (i.e. do not be upset)
19)[line 26]חד מינייהו כתרי מינןCHAD MINAIHU KI'TREI MINAN- one of them is like two of us (that is, one Amora from Eretz Yisrael (like Ravina) is as great in wisdom as two Amora'im from Bavel - like the two of us, i.e. Rav Ashi and Rav Sama - RASHI)
20)[line 27]ועייף להו מיעףV'AYIF LEHU MEI'AF- and he would fold them over (to make eight strings)
21)[line 27]ומעייל להו בגלימאU'ME'AYEIL LEHU BI'GELIMA- and then insert them into the garment
22)[line 28]ואביק להו מיבקV'AVIK LEHU MEIVAK- and he tied them with loops (the folded part - i.e. the middle - of the four strings are inserted into the hole, leaving a loop on one side of the garment and eight strings on the other side. Most of the strings are inserted into the loops and the strings left out are used to tie the strings in the loops. The strings are either left this way or circled in the normal way of wrapping the Kerichos of the Tzitzis, which obscures the loops from view when the Gedil is finished)
23)[line 28]בעינן תמניא בגלימאBA'INAN TEMANYA BI'GELIMA- eight strings are needed in the garment
24)[line 29]דליהוי גדיל גדילים במקום פתילDI'LEHEVEI GEDIL GEDILIM BI'MEKOM PESIL- so that there should be a fulfillment of the verses of Gedilim (Devarim 22:12) and Pesil (Bamidbar 15:38). ("Gedil" signifies two strings; "Gedilim" doubles these two to four, and "Pesil" strings are parallel to the Gedilim, adding another four)
25)[line 31]דאינהו שיתסרD'INHU SHITSAR- that they are sixteen (when they are folded over)
26)[line 31]ולא אביק להוV'LO AVIK LEHU- and he did not loop them
27)[line 34]מאי ציצי שמענאMAI "TZITZI" SHAMANA?- What is this chirping sound (that sounds like "Tzitzis") that I hear?
28)[line 35]כי נח נפשיהKI NACH NAFSHEI- when he (Rav Huna) died
29)[line 36]על רב חסדאAL RAV CHISDA- Rav Chisda went up (to the study hall)
30)[line 36]למירמאL'MIRMA- to show a contradiction
31)[line 41]מאי רומיאMAI RUMYA?- What is the contradiction?
32)[line 44]וכללא הואU'CHELALA HU?!- Is that a rule?!
33)[line 45]רופא ארמאיROFEI ARAMA'I- an Aramean (Nochri) doctor
34)[line 45]כותיKUSI (KUSIM)
(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
35)[line 48]מידי הוא טעמא אלא לרבMIDI HU TA'AMA ELA L'RAV- are we not trying to explain the reasoning of Rav (who says that a Jew recites a blessing only for a Mitzvah that cannot be done by a Nochri)?
36)[line 48]מיפסיל פסילMIFSIL PASIL- [the Milah performed by a Nochri] is certainly invalid
37)[line 50]המול ימולHA'MOL YIMOL- the one who is himself circumcised shall circumcise (excluding a Nochri from performing Milah to a Jew)
38)[line 50]סוכה מסייע ליהSUKAH MESAYE'A LEI- the law regarding Sukah supports him
39)[line 50]תפילין הוי תיובתיהTEFILIN HEVEI TIYUVTEI- the law regarding Tefilin refutes him
40)[line 52]סוכה מכל מקוםSUKAH MI'KOL MAKOM- "any Sukah at all"; the Gemara in Sukah (8b) explains that this phrase includes the Sukos of Ro'im (shepherds), Kayatzim (watchmen who guard the cut figs ("Ketzi'os") left in the field to dry), Burganin (watchmen who guard the city), and Shomrei Peiros (watchmen who guard fruits).
41)[line 52]מסוככת כהילכתהMESUCHECHES K'HILCHASAH- the Sechach was placed on the Sukah according to Halachah (i.e. the Sechach was placed on the Sukah for shade and not only for privacy)
42)[line 1]מפשרניאMI'PASHRANIYA- from Pashraniya, in Bavel
43a)[line 2]צדוקיTZEDUKI / MIN
(a)The Tzedukim (and Baitusim) were students of Tzadok (and Baitus) who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b)A Min refers to a Jewish infidel or idolater.
b)[line 15]מוסרMOSER- A Jew who, of his own volition, reveals the location of another's possessions to someone who wants to take them away (see Insights to Kerisus 2b) (this is the Girsa of the SHITAH MEKUBETZES according to the MAHARSHAL)
c)[line 16]כותיKUSI- see above, entry #34
44)[line 3]מומרMUMAR- a Jewish apostate, a person who does not keep the laws of the Torah
45)[line 3]"וקשרתם... וכתבתם""U'KESHARTAM [L'OS AL YADECHA, V'HAYU L'TOTAFOS BEIN EINECHA]. U'CHESAVTAM [AL MEZUZOS BEISECHA UVI'SHE'ARECHA]"- "You shall bind them [for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes]. And you shall write them [upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates]." (Devarim 6:8-9)
46)[line 4]שישנוSHE'YESHNO- whoever has [the obligation of]
47)[line 12]דעשייתה גמר מצוהD'ASIYASAH GEMAR MITZVAH- that with its performance, the Mitzvah is completed
48)[line 18]אתון הכי מתניתו להATUN HACHI MASNISU LAH- you, this is how you learned it
49)[line 21]יעשו להם אחריםYA'ASU LAHEM ACHERIM- others (Nochrim) shall do for them (shall make the Tzitzis for them)
50a)[line 23]הקוציםKOTZIM- (O.F. pluches) threads (of the warp or longitudinal threads of the loom) that appear like thorns that stick out
b)[line 23]הנימיןNIMIN- sewing threads which hang out after the garment is completed
c)[line 23]הגרדיןGERADIN (O.F. fernjes)- threads (fringes) which hang from the bottom of the woven garment
d)[line 24]הסיסיןSISIN- balls of thread (from which the woof and warp are threaded)
51)[line 25]בעינן טוייה לשמהBA'INAN TEVIYAH LI'SHEMAH- the spinning of the threads for the Tzitzis must be done for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitztis
52)[line 26]ציפן זהבTZIPAN ZAHAV- he overlaid gold leaf on them (on the Batim, the boxes of the Tefilin that are made from the skin of a Kosher animal)
53)[line 26]שטלה עליהן עור בהמה טמאהTALAH ALEIHEN OR BEHEMAH TEME'AH- he stretched over and attached to the Batim the skin of a non-Kosher animal
54)[line 28]שלא עיבדן לשמןSHE'LO IBDAN LI'SHEMAN - [even though[ they were not processed with specific intent to be used for the Mitzvah (IBUD LI'SHEMAH)
Ibud is the tanning of soft skin of Kosher domesticated animals into leather. When a person wants to start writing a Sefer Torah, Tefilin or Mezuzos, the Tana'im argue as to whether he must perform the Ibud Lishmah, that is, for the sake of the Mitzvah.
55)[line 31]הא תכילתא היכי צבעיתו להHA TECHEILTA, HEICHI TZAV'ISU LAH?- the Techeles, how do we produce the dye?
56)[line 32]מייתינן דם חלזוןMAISINAN DAM CHILAZON- we bring the blood of the Chilazon (see Insights to Menachos 44:1)
57)[line 32]וסמניןSAMANIN- (O.F. alum) crystal alum, any of a group of double salts analogous to and including potash alum (RASHI)
58)[line 32]ורמינן להו ביורהV'RAMINAN LEHU B'YOREH- and we throw them into the pot
59)[line 33]ומרתחינן ליהU'MARTECHINAN LEI- and we boil it
60)[line 33]ושקלינא פורתא בביעתאV'SHAKLINA PURTA B'VEI'ASA- and we take out a little with an eggshell
61)[line 34]וטעמינן להו באודראV'TA'AMINAN LEHU B'UDRA- and we test it on a scrap of combed wool
62)[line 34]ושדינן ליה לההוא ביעתאV'SHADINAN LEI L'HA'HU BEI'ASA- and we throw out that eggshell
63)[line 35]וקלינןKALINAN- we burn
64)[line 36]טעימה פסולהTE'IMAH PESULAH- Techeles used for testing is invalid [for use in Tzitzis]
65)[line 37]צביעה לשמהTZEVI'AH LI'SHEMAH- dyeing for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis
66)[line 38]טעימה פסלה(TE'IMAH) [TA'AMAH] PASLAH- if he dyed the test wool in the pot of Techeles, he invalidates the entire pot of dye for use in the Mitzvah
67)[line 42]כליל תכלת"KELIL TECHELES"- "[You shall make the Me'il of the Efod] entirely of Techeles." (Shemos 28:31) - Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel derives from here that the Techeles used to dye the Me'il (and, likewise, the Tzitzis) must be used completely for the Me'il and may not have been used for any other prior purpose.
68)[line 43]מראה שני שבהMAR'EH SHENI SHE'BAH- the appearance of dye being used for the second time in it
69)[line 44]ושני תולעת(U'SHENI SOLA'AS) "V'SOLA'AS SHANI"- "[And Techeles, and purple,] and scarlet wool..." (Shemos 25:4). Rebbi Yochanan ben Dehavai learns that just as the scarlet dye could be used even though it was used for some other purpose earlier, so, too, the Techeles may be used even though it was used for some other purpose earlier. (The words in our text of the Gemara, "u'Sheni Sola'as," and the reference to Vayikra 14:4, are in error, as Techeles is not mentioned in that verse; DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #5)
70)[line 45]אין לה בדיקהEIN LAH BEDIKAH- it cannot be checked (that is, it is impossible to determine whether it is real Techeles or whether it is the imitation Techeles)
71)[line 45]ואין נקחיתEIN NIKCHEIS- it may not be purchased
72)[line 45]המומחהMUMCHEH- expert
73)[line 46]ספריםSEFARIM- Sifrei Torah (RASHI; see TOSFOS DH Tefilin who argues, quoting sources that state that Sifrei Torah indeed need Ibud li'Sheman)
74)[last line](סי' בגשם)SIMAN B'GESHEM- this is a mnemonic device that stands for the three substances used to check whether material was dyed with real Techeles or whether it was dyed with the imitation Techeles. It stands for:
75)[last line]מייתיMAISI- he would bring
76)[last line]מגביא גילאMEGAVYA GILA- (O.F. alum) liquid alum, any of a group of double salts analogous to and including potash alum
77)[last line]ומיא דשבלילתאMAYA D'SHAVLILTA- (O.F. fenogre) the juice of fenugreek, an annual Asian and southern European plant of the pea family, having aromatic, mucilaginous (sticky, gummy, containing or secreting mucilage) seeds that are used in making curry, and for medicinal purposes
78)[last line]ומימי רגליםMEIMEI RAGLAYIM- urine