WHEN DOES ME'ILAH APPLY?
(Mid'Oraisa, Me'ilah applies to Kodshei Kodashim while alive. After Zerikah, it applies to the Eimurim, but not to the meat permitted to Kohanim. Me'ilah does not apply to live Kodshim Kalim; after Zerikah, it applies to the Eimurim.)
(Mishnah): Me'ilah applies to the following Kodshim (even though they are Pasul):
Kodshei Kodashim that were slaughtered in the south;
They were slaughtered in the south, but Kabalah was in the north;
They were slaughtered in the north, but Kabalah was in the south;
They were slaughtered during the daytime, but Zerikah was at night;
They were slaughtered at night, but Zerikah was during the day;
They were slaughtered (with intent to do subsequent Avodos or eat the meat) Chutz li'Zemano (after the permitted time) or Chutz li'Mekomo (outside the permitted place);
R. Yehoshua says, the general rule is, Me'ilah applies only if it was never permitted to Kohanim.
Question: What is considered to have had She'as Heter (a moment at which it was permitted to Kohanim)?
Answer: The Korban (the Eimurim or meat) was left overnight, it became Tamei, or was Yotzei (it left its proper place, i.e. the Azarah or Yerushalayim);
Question: What never had She'as Heter?
Answer: It was slaughtered (with intent of) Chutz li'Zemano or Chutz li'Mekomo, or disqualified Kohanim performed Kabalah and (they did) Zerikah (this will be explained).
(Gemara) Question: It teaches that Me'ilah applies to Kodshei Kodashim slaughtered in the south. This is obvious, Shechitah in the south does not (remove the Kedushah of the Korban and thus) remove Me'ilah!
Answer: It is a Chidush;
Ula taught that if Kodshim died (without Shechitah), Me'ilah does not apply to them mid'Oraisa. One might have thought that Shechitah in the south is like being choked to death;
The Mishnah teaches that this is not so. Kodshim that died are not Kosher for anything, but Shechitah in the south, although it invalidates Kodshei Kodashim, is valid for Kodshim Kalim. (Shitah - therefore, Im Alu Lo Yerdu (if they were brought on the Mizbe'ach, we do not take them down), so they are considered Kodshei Hash-m).
Question: Why do we need all the cases taught in the Mishnah?
Answer: All are needed:
Had it taught only about Shechitah in the north and Kabalah in the south, one might have thought that then there is Me'ilah, because Kabalah (the primary Avodah) was (done properly,) in the north, but if it was slaughtered in the north and Kabalah was in the south, the primary Avodah was Pasul, so Me'ilah would not apply;
Had it taught only about Shechitah or Kabalah in the south, one might have thought that then there is Me'ilah, for everything was done during the day, the time for Hakravah (offering), but Me'ilah would not apply when Shechitah was at night and Zerikah during the day, for night is Pasul for Avodah;
Had it taught only about Shechitah at night, one might have thought that then there is Me'ilah, for Zerikah (the primary Avodah) was during the day, but if it was slaughtered during the day and Zerikah was at night; which is Pasul for Hakravah, it is as if the Korban was choked. The extra clause teaches this is not so, and Me'ilah does not apply.
Version #1 (our text) Question: In what sense are Chutz li'Zemano and Chutz li'Mekomo proper? (Since there is Me'ilah for them, they must be proper in some way!)
Answer: (Proper Pigul, for which one who eats it is Chayav Kares, is only when all Avodos were completed properly, except for intent of Chutz li'Zemano.) Since Avodos done with intent Chutz li'Zemano are Meratzeh for Pigul (they enable the Korban to become Pigul, like proper Avodah), they do not uproot Me'ilah. (Chutz li'Mekomo is equated to Chutz li'Zemano. Alternatively, Chachamim often call a Korban 'Pigul' even if it was offered with intent Chutz li'Mekomo; really, it is only Pasul. Zerikas with intent Chutz li'Mekomo causes the Korban to be Pasul due to such Pigul.)
Version #2 (Tosfos) Question: Regarding Chutz li'Zemano and Chutz li'Mekomo, all agree that Lo Yerdu. Obviously Me'ilah applies!
Answer: Since they are Meratzeh for Pigul, one might have thought that their Zerikah is valid to uproot Me'ilah. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so.
Question: Im Alu (if they were brought on the Mizbe'ach), do we take them down? (Rashi - we ask about all the Pesulim of our Mishnah. Tosfos - we discuss if Shechitah or Kabalah of Kodshei Kodashim was done in the south.)
Answer #1 (Rabah): Im Alu Yerdu (they are taken down).
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): Im Alu Lo Yerdu (they are not taken down).
They do not argue according to R. Yehudah (who says Yerdu if the blood spilled, it was Lan, or was Yotzei). Also here, Yerdu;
They argue according to R. Shimon (who says Lo Yerdu regarding anything brought on the Mizbe'ach).
Rav Yosef holds like (the simple understanding of) R. Shimon;
Rabah says that R. Shimon refers only to things like blood put on the wrong half (upper or lower) of the Mizbe'ach if they were slaughtered in the north, but Shechitah in the south is like choking the animal to death. (Im Alu Yerdu).
Question (against Rabah - Mishnah): Me'ilah applies to Kodshei Kodashim slaughtered in the south.
Answer: The Me'ilah is mid'Rabanan.
Question: What is the difference between Me'ilah mid'Oraisa and mid'Rabanan?
Answer: One adds a Chomesh (and brings an Asham) for Me'ilah mid'Oraisa, but not for Me'ilah mid'Rabanan.
Question: Is there really Me'ilah mid'Rabanan (Tosfos - in a case like Shechitas Darom, which people anyway will stay away from)?
(Ula): If Kodshim died (without Shechitah), Me'ilah does not apply to them mid'Oraisa.
Inference: Me'ilah does not apply mid'Oraisa, but it applies mid'Rabanan.
Likewise, there is Me'ilah mid'Rabanan regarding Shechitas Darom. Rashi - the next questions are according to Rabah, who must give answer (e). Lechem Mishnah (Hilchos Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 3:7) - the Gemara accepted answer (e), and understands that according to everyone the Me'ilah in our Mishnah is mid'Rabanan. The following questions are according to everyone.)
Question: We learn Ula's law from our Mishnah! (Why did he need to teach it?)
Answer: It was necessary to teach it;
One might have thought that there is Me'ilah mid'Rabanan here, for otherwise people would not stay away from it (so much), but in any case people stay away from Kodshim that died, so there is no need to decree Me'ilah mid'Rabanan. Ula teaches that this is not so.
Question: Another Mishnah teaches about Kodshim that died (that there is (Shitah; Rashi - is no) Me'ilah mid'Rabanan)!
(Mishnah): If one benefits a Perutah from a live Chatas, he is not Mo'el unless he is Pogem it (decreases its value; Rashi - it is a Ba'al Mum, it has Kedushas Damim);
If one benefits (a Perutah's worth) from a dead Chatas, he is as Mo'el (mid'Rabanan, even if he is not Pogem it - it lacks Kedushas Damim, for it cannot be redeemed).
Version #1 (Rashi): We assume that this applies only to Chatas, for it is for Kaparah, people do not stay away from it, but other Korbanos are not (primarily) for Kaparah, people are careful to stay away from them, Me'ilah does not apply to them!
Answer: Regarding other Korbanos, (people do not stay away from them while alive, so) all the more so Me'ilah applies to them.
Version #2A (Shitah) Answer: One might have thought that this applies only to Chatas, for it is for Kaparah, so people do not stay away from it, but other Korbanos are not for Kaparah, so people stay away from them, and Me'ilah would not apply to them. Ula teaches that this is not so.
Version #2B (Shitah) Answer: One might have thought that this applies only to a Ba'al Mum, for it is not for Kaparah, people do not stay away from it, but Tam Kodshim are for Kaparah, so people stay away from them, and Me'ilah would not apply to them. Ula teaches that this is not so.