[18a - 27 lines; 18b - 23 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 18a DH ha'Beged " :

The words "Shalosh Etzba'os Al Shalosh Etzba'os"

should be "Sheloshah Tefachim Al Sheloshah Tefachim" (as is found in Rashi to Sukah 17b, Rabeinu Gershom here, and in a number of places in Shas and Rishonim; -M. KORNFELD)

[2] Gemara 18b [line 12]:

"Ochel v'Neheneh b'Davar she'Ein Bo Pegam, Minayin?" ?

The Girsa of our Gemara reflects a confusing combination of two Girsa'os. The correct Girsa is either:

(a) "Ochel v'Neheneh, Minayin?" ? (Rashi and Peirush Kadmon)

(b) "Ochel, Neheneh b'Davar she'Ein Bo Pegam Minayin?" ? (Rosh, Rabeinu Gershom)


1a)[line 5]HA'BEGED- a garment woven from wool or linen

b)[line 5]HA'SAK- a garment woven from goat hair

c)[line 5]H A'OR- an article made of leather

d)[line 5]HA'MAPATZ- a reed mat

2a)[line 6] MIPNEI SHE'HEN RE'UYIN LITAMEI B'MOSHAV- (a) The various types of material may be combined to make a Shi'ur Tum'ah because we have a rule that when objects can make someone Tamei with similar Shi'urim, they may be combined to create a Shi'ur Tum'ah, and in one instance the Shi'urim of the all materials mentioned in the Mishnah are similar. When they were specifically prepared as a donkey-saddle, they are all Metamei when they are 1 X 1 Tefach (see Gemara further) (RASHI to Sukah 17b DH Ho'il); (b) Alternatively, the materials may be combined to create a Shi'ur Tum'ah since they are often sewn together into one piece when a person makes a donkey-saddle (ibid., RASHI to our Mishnah).


(a)A Zav (see Background to Kerisus 8:4), Zavah (see Background to Kerisus 8:9), Nidah (see Background to Erchin 8:1:a) or Yoledes (see Background to Kerisus 7:16), can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton, of a Zav, etc.). An object that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)The Mishnah (Keilim 27:2) states that a Beged (an item of clothing) can receive Tum'as Midras if it is the size of Sheloshah Al Sheloshah (three Tefachim by three Tefachim). If it is smaller than that, it is not suitable for a Zav to sit upon and does not become Tamei through Midras. The minimum size for Sak (pieces of sack material) is four square Tefachim. Or (leather) and Mapatz (mats woven of reeds) have bigger minimum sizes (five and six square Tefachim, respectively). (The sizes for Sak, Or and Mapatz are for all Tum'os. Begadim, however, are distinct in that for Tum'as Mes and Tum'as Sheretz, the minimum size in order to receive these Tum'os is three Etzba'os square, since it is still fit for use by the poor see Background to Bava Basra 20:5).

(c)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(d)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav or Zavah.

3)[line 7] K ITZE'A MI'KULAN SHELOSHAH- (a) If a person specifically smoothed and polished any of the above-mentioned materials to be used as a garment... (RASHI to Sukah 17b, see above, 2a:a); (b) alternatively, if one combined, into a single garment, a number of small pieces of all of the above-mentioned materials (RASHI to our Sugya, see above 2a:b); (c) If a person intentionally cut a 1 X 1 Tefach piece of any of the above-mentioned materials to be used as a garment... (RAMBAM Hilchos Kelim 23:3)

4)[line 10] OMED L'NAVLAH- it may be used to tie around the weaver's finger when he puts up the frame

5)[line 11] RA'UY L'KOTZETZEI TE'ENIM- and it may be used by the fig pickers to wrap around their hand


6)[line 13] ... HA'NEHENEH ... AF AL PI SHE'LO PAGAM- one who benefits from Hekdesh ... even if he did not cause it a loss of value

7)[line 16]K ATLA- necklace, choker [of Hekdesh]

8)[line 19] BIKE'A B'KARDOM- he split [wood] with a hatchet or axe [of Hekdesh]

9)[line 23] B'LEVUSH METZIA'A- a garment worn between two layers of clothing

10)[line 24]MALMELA- and a cloth of very fine texture

11a)[line 24]HA'NASI- a king

b)[line 25]HA'MASHI'ACH- a Kohen Gadol

12)[last line]" [ ] ...""VA'YIM'ALU BE'LOKEI AVOSEIHEM, VA'YIZNU ACHAREI (HA'BE'ALIM) [ELOHEI AMEI HA'ARETZ] ..."- "And they rebelled against the G-d of their fathers, and they went astray after the (Be'alim) [gods of the peoples of the land], [whom HaSh-m destroyed before them]." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 5:25)



(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3; see Insights to Me'ilah 2:1). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim - Sanhedrin 83a) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Asham Me'ilos (as described in Vayikra 5:15-16) and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

(d)If someone sends a Shali'ach (agent, messenger) to use money or an object of Hekdesh, the sender is the one who transgresses the prohibition of Me'ilah, (contrary to the normal rule of "Ein Shali'ach li'Devar Aveirah" see Background to Bava Metzia 43:11b) if the Shali'ach carries out his task.