[16a - 18 lines; 16b - 21 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 16a [line 7]:

"v'Kashya l'Rav Asi" וקשיא לרב אסי

The Shitah Mekubetzes #1 erases these words; this is also the Girsa of Tosfos DH Meisivei

[2] Rashi 16a DH Kashya Reisha ד"ה קשיא רישא:

The words "Aval Chatzi Zayis mi'Parah" אבל חצי זית מפרה

should be "Aval Chatzi Zayis mi'Parah, v'Chatzi Zayis mi'Gamal" אבל חצי זית מפרה וחצי זית מגמל

[3] Rashi DH Amar Lecha Rav Asi ד"ה אמר לך רב אסי:

(a) From the words in this Dibur, Rashi's intention is unclear. First, Rashi writes that this Beraisa is of the opinion that Isur Chal Al Isur אסור חל על אסור, whereas further down he writes that in the Reisha of the Beraisa, the Isur of Neveilah is not Chal on the Isur of Tum'ah. Second, it seems from Rashi's words that the Isur of Neveilah applies to Ever Min ha'Chai אבר מן החי, which is a perplexing statement; from where does Rashi derive this? In its simple meaning, "Neveilah" נבילה means an animal that died.

(b) Many Mefarshim have made emendations in Rashi — see Birkas ha'Zevach, Tzon Kodashim, and Chok Nasan. The clearest emendations seem to be as follows:

The words "d'Lo Asi Isur Neveilah v'Chayil a'Isur Ever Min ha'Chai" דלא אתי איסור נבילה וחייל אאיסור אבר מן החי

should be "d'Lo Asi Isur Neveilah v'Chayil a'Isur Teme'ah" דלא אתי איסור נבילה וחייל אאיסור טמאה (These words are also out of place and belong above, before the words "v'Ha deka'Tani b'Reisha"והא דקתני ברישא - M. KORNFELD). Also…

The words "deb'Vehemah Teme'ah Leika Isur Neveilah Ela Isur Behemah Teme'ah v'Ever Min ha'Chai" דבבהמה טמאה ליכא איסור נבילה אלא איסור בהמה טמאה ואבר מן החי

should be "deb'Vehemah Tehorah Leika Isur Neveilah Ela Isur Ever Min ha'Chai" דבבהמה טהורה ליכא אסור נבילה אלא אסור אבר מן החי (Tzon Kodashim; in the margin of our Shas this emendation is incorrectly recorded — the emendation of the word Teme'ah טמאה is missing, making the other emendation incomprehensible).


1)[line 9]אבר מן החיEVER MIN HA'CHAI

(a)Ever Min ha'Chai refers to a limb that is detached from an animal when it is alive, whether the limb contains only flesh (such as the tongue or heart) or whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot). Basar Min ha'Chai refers to flesh detached from an animal when it is alive. Both are forbidden to be eaten by the Torah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).

(b)The Gemara (Chulin 128b) brings a source from the verses to show that Ever Min ha'Chai is Metamei like a limb of a Neveilah. A Neveilah is a carcass of a kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(c)The prohibition for Bnei Yisrael to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "v'Lo Sochal ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar" - "You shall not eat the spirit together with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). If the limb contains only flesh (e.g. the tongue or heart), one receive lashes for eating a k'Zayis of flesh. If the limb contains bones, sinews and flesh, then the bone and sinews may be combined with the flesh to make up a k'Zayis if the limb is eaten in its natural state (i.e. if the flesh was not detached from the limb prior to its consumption). One does not receive lashes for eating less than a k'Zayis, even if he ate an entire limb. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros Ch. 5; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #452)

(d)The prohibition for Nochrim to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "... mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan Achol Tochel." - "... from all of the trees of the Garden [of Eden] you may surely eat" (Bereishis 2:16). The implication is that Adam may eat from all of the trees, but he may not eat Ever Min ha'Chai (Sanhedrin 56b). This follows the teaching of Rebbi Yochanan. Other sages learn the prohibition from different verses (ibid.).

(e)All opinions agree that the prohibition for Nochrim against eating Ever Min ha'Chai applies to both kosher and non-kosher animals.

(f)For a Jew, however, there is a Machlokes: Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Elazar rule that it applies to all animals for a Jew also. Rebbi Meir rules that it applies only to a kosher Behemah (i.e. domesticated farm animals such as cows, goats and sheep). The Chachamim rule that it applies to all kosher animals (Behemos and Chayos) and fowl. The Halachah follows this opinion (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 62:1).

2)[line 11]מאי איריא דרהיט ותני ...?MAI IRYA D'RAHIT V'TANI ...?- Why is he hastening to specifically teach ...?

3)[line 16]קשיא רישא אסיפאKASHYA REISHA A'SEIFA- the earlier statement contradicts the later statement


4)[line 14]שמעתא בעלמא קאמרSHEMAITSA B'ALMA KA'AMAR- this statement was not made in reference to our Mishnah

5)[line 16]האיברין אין להן שיעורHA'EIVARIN EIN LAHEM SHI'UR- whole limbs need no minimum size [in order to be Metamei]

6)[line 19]במובדלין דבר הכתובB'MUVDALIN DIBER HA'KASUV- the verse is referring to the [Sheratzim that are] separated [from other Sheratzim, in that they are Metamei (see Background to Chulin 122:7 and to Me'ilah 15:10), and their Isur Achilah is bek'Adashah]; see Insights here

7)[line 20]בהמה נמי ליפלגי בין מובדלת לשאינה מובדלתBEHEMAH NAMI LIPALGEI BEIN MUVDELES LESHE'EINAH MUVDELES- (a) Just as we have shown that Sheratzim that are Tamei have a smaller Shi'ur than other Sheratzim for their Isur Achilah, so too, perhaps Behemos that are permitted to eat (Mutar b'Achilah) have a smaller Shi'ur for making others Tamei when they die than do animals that are Asur b'Achilah (RASHI; PERUSH KADMON #1 of Rav Sofer); (b) Alternatively, just as we have shown that Sheratzim that are Tamei have a smaller Shi'ur than other Sheratzim for their Isur Achilah, so too, perhaps Behemos that are Asur b'Achilah have a smaller Shi'ur for their Isur Achilah than non-slaughtered Behemos (Neveilos) that would have been Mutar b'Achilah if slaughtered (PERUSH KADMON #2 of Rav Sofer).