MEGILAH 19 (3 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter, Diane Koenigsberg, and family. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael be preserved in all of his descendants.

1)

(a)Our Mishnah invalidates a Megilah that is written with Sam, Sikra, Kumus and Kankantum. 'Sam' is orpiment. What is ...

1. ... Sikra?

2. ... Kumus?

3. ... Kankantum?

(b)The Mishnah also invalidates a Megilah that is written on Neyar or on Diftera. 'Neyar' is a paper manufactured from herbs using glue. What is 'Dift'ra'?

(c)What (in connection with the way the Megilah is written) do we learn from ...

1. ... "ki'Chesavam v'chi'Zmanam"?

2. ... "the 'Gezeirah-Shavah "va'Tichtov Esther ha'Malkah" (Esther) and "va'Yomer Lahem Baruch ... va'Ani Kosev al ha'Sefer u'vi'Deyo" (Yirmeyahu)?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah invalidates a Megilah that is written with Sam, Sikra, Kumus and Kankantum. 'Sam' is orpiment ...

1. ... Sikra - is red paint (used for painting shutters).

2. ... Kumus - is sap (from a tree).

3. ... Kankantum - is a black dye (used to dye shoes).

(b)The Mishnah also invalidates a Megilah that is written on Neyar or on Diftera. 'Neyar' is a paper manufactured from herbs using glue. 'Diftera' - is skins that have been tanned, salted and treated with flour in water, but to which gall-nuts have not been added.

(c)We learn from ...

1. ... "ki'Chesavam v'chi'Zmanam" - that the Megilah must be written in Lashon ha'Kodesh.

2. ... "the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "va'Tichtov Esther ha'Malkah" (Esther) and "va'Yomer Lahem Baruch ... va'Ani Kosev al ha'Sefer uvi'Deyo" (Yirmeyahu) - that the Megilah must be written in ink.

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Meir, one has to read the entire Megilah, and according to Rebbi Yehudah, from "Ish Yehudi". What does Rebbi Yosi say?

(b)What is the fourth opinion?

2)

(a)According to Rebbi Meir, one has to read the entire Megilah, according to Rebbi Yehudah, from "Ish Yehudi". Rebbi Yosi says - that one must read from "Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eileh (Gidal ha'Melech ...es Haman").

(b)The fourth opinion - is that of Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai, in whose opinion one must begin from "ba'Laylah ha'Hu".

3)

(a)The Tana of our Mishnah states that if a ben Ir who is in a Krach on the fourteenth intends to return, he reads like his town: otherwise, he reads on the fifteenth. What does he say about a ben Krach who is in an Ir on the fourteenth?

(b)By when must the latter intend to leave the Ir in order not to have to read on the fourteenth night?

(c)What is the Din regarding a ben Ir who intends to remain in the Krach until the morning of the fifteenth?

(d)What do we learn from the Pasuk "Al-ken ha'Yehudim ha'Perazim, ha'Yoshvim b'Arei ha'Prazos"?

(e)How do we know to apply the same principle to a 'Mukaf for a day'?

3)

(a)The Tana of our Mishnah states that if a ben Ir who is in a Krach on the fourteenth intends to return, he reads like his town, otherwise, he reads together with the locals (on the fifteenth) - and the same goes for a ben Krach who is in an Ir on the fourteenth.

(b)In order not to read on the fourteenth night - the latter must intend to leave the Ir before dawn-break of the fourteenth.

(c)A ben Ir who intends to remain in the Krach until the morning of the fifteenth - reads on the fifteenth, and not on the fourteenth.

(d)We learn from the Pasuk "Al Ken ha'Yehudim ha'P'razim, ha'Yoshvim b'Arei ha'Prazos" - that a ben Krach who becomes a Prazi for the day is considered a Prazi and reads the Megilah on the fourteenth.

(e)We apply the same principle to a 'Mukaf for a day' - because if a Prazi for the day is called a Prazi, then why should a Mukaf for the day not be called a Mukaf?

4)

(a)Why does Rava say that a ben Kefar who is in an Ir on the night of the fourteenth, reads the Megilah then (even if he has already read the Megilah, and), even if he intends to return before the morning?

(b)The Beraisa states that a ben Krach who went to an Ir reads like his place, even if he intends to remain there until the morning of the fourteenth. Why can this Beraisa not be understood the way it stands?

(c)So we change 'ben Krach' to 'ben Kefar'. What further change does Rava make to reconcile the Beraisa with his previous statement?

4)

(a)Rava says that a ben Kefar who is in an Ir on the night of the fourteenth, reads the Megilah then (even if he has read the Megilah already, and), even if he intends to return before the morning - because the Takanah of reading the Megilah early was a concession for the villagers, releasing them from the obligation to go into town on the fourteenth (in payment for their services on behalf of the towns). But if a villager is already in town, then, seeing as his time is really the fourteenth, there is no reason for him not to read the Megilah on the fourteenth.

(b)The Beraisa states that a ben Krach who went to an Ir reads like his place, even if he intends to remain there until the morning of the fourteenth. This Beraisa cannot be understood the way it stands - because we just learned in the Mishnah that a ben Krach who is in an Ir until the morning of the fourteenth, reads on the fourteenth.

(c)So we change 'ben Krach' to 'ben K'far'. Rava reconciles the Beraisa with his previous statement by making a further change in the Beraisa. Instead of 'reads like his place' - we change it to 'reads together with them'.

5)

(a)We learned earlier that the Tana'im argue over how much one needs to read in order to be Yotzei. According to Rebbi Yochanan, they all derive their respective opinions from the same source, from "es Kol Tokef". How does ...

1. ... Rebbi Meir ('all of it') learn it from there?

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah (from 'Ish Yehudi') ... ?

3. ... Rebbi Yosi (from 'Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eileh") ...?

4. ... Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai (from 'ba'Laylah ha'Hu') ...?

(b)According to Rav Huna, they all derive it from "u'Mah Ra'u al Kachah, u'Mah Higi'a Aleihem". Why did ...

1. ... Achashverosh use the holy vessels of the Beis Hamikdash, and what happened because of it?

2. ... Mordechai incite Haman by refusing to bow down to him, and what happened because of it?

3. ... Haman become angry with all the Jews, and what happened because of it?

4. ... Achashverosh decide to send for the Book of Chronicles, and what happened because of it?

(c)Like whom does Rebbi Chelbo ... Amar Rav rule?

(d)In which point does he maintain that all the Tana'im agree?

5)

(a)We learned earlier that the Tana'im argue over how much one needs to read in order to be Yotzei. According to Rebbi Yochanan, they all derive their respective opinions from the same source, from "es Kol Tokef". Rebbi ...

1. ... Meir ('all of it') explains "es Kol Tokef" to mean - Tokfo shel Achashverosh.

2. ... Yehudah (from 'Ish Yehudi') explains it as - Tokfo shel Mordechai.

3. ... Yosi ('Achar ha'Devarim ha'Eileh") explains it as - Tokfo shel Haman.

4. ... Shimon bar Yochai ('ba'Laylah ha'Hu') as - Tokfo shel Nes.

(b)According to Rav Huna, they all derive it from "u'Mah Ra'u al Kachah, u'Mah Higi'a Aleihem". The reason that ...

1. ... Achashverosh used the holy vessels of the Beis Hamikdash was because - he figured that the seventy years of Galus had passed and the Jews had not gone free. On account of it - Vashti was killed.

2. ... Mordechai incited Haman by refusing to bow down to him was - because he made himself a god. On account of it - the miracle of Purim occurred.

3. ... Haman became angry with all the Jews was - because Mordechai refused to bow down to him. On account of it - he together with his sons, were hanged.

4. ... Achashverosh decided to send for the Book of Chronicles was because - Esther invited Haman to the party. Because of it - a miracle occurred.

(c)Rebbi Chelbo ... Amar Rav rules like Rebbi Meir (that one must read all of the Megilah in order to be Yotzei).

(d)In any event, he maintains, all the Tana'im agree - that the entire Megilah must be placed in front of the Ba'al Korei.

6)

(a)In which regard does Rebbi Chelbo ... Amar Rav consider a Megilah ...

1. ... a Sefer?

2. ... an Igeres?

(b)What does Rav Nachman mean when he adds that the threads must be 'Meshulashin'?

6)

(a)Rebbi Chelbo ... Amar Rav The Megilah considers a Megilah ...

1. ... a Sefer - inasmuch as it must be stitched with the gut of an animal, and not with linen threads.

2. ... an Igeres - inasmuch as it does not require five stitches at each point where it is stitched, but will suffice with three.

(b)When Rav Nachman adds that the threads must be 'Meshulashin' - he means that from the top of the parchment to the first stitch, from the first to the second, from the second to the third and from the third till the bottom of the parchment should all be the same distance.

7)

(a)What does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav say about a Megilah that is written as part of Kesuvim?

(b)How does Rava qualify Rav Yehudah's ruling? On what condition is it Kasher?

(c)What was Rav Yehudah's reaction when Levi bar Shmuel read the Megilah in front of him from a Kesuvim?

(d)How did the latter respond, citing Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan?

7)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav - invalidates a Megilah that is written as part of Kesuvim.

(b)Rava qualifies Rav Yehudah's ruling however - declaring it Kasher if the parchment on which it is written is not equal with rest of the Sefer (i.e. it either protrudes above the rest of the parchment or is recessed).

(c)When Levi bar Shmuel read the Megilah in front of him from a Kesuvim - Rav Yehudah objected on account of Rav's previous ruling.

(d)The latter responded by citing Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan, who issued the same ruling - only, after citing Rebbi Yochanan, Rebbi Chiya bar Aba qualified his Rebbe's statement, by confining it to a communal Megilah-reading (whilst Levi bar Shmuel had read it privately).

19b----------------------------------------19b

8)

(a)Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan requires leaving a little of a Sefer unstitched at the top and at the bottom 'Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai'. How does Rebbi Chiya bar Aba qualify this statement?

(b)What is then the reason for the ruling?

(c)What, according to Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan, had the tiniest crack remained in the rock of the cave in which Moshe Rabeinu, and later Eliyahu, hid, and which Hash-m covered with His Hand (kiv'Yachol) when He went past?

(d)Why is that?

(e)Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa (with regard to the Luchos) "va'Aleihem k'Chol ha'Devarim Asher Diber Hash-m Imachem ba'Har", that Hash-m showed Moshe 'Dikdukei Torah, Dikdukei Sofrim, u'Mah she'ha'Sofrim Asidin l'Chadesh'. 'Mah she'ha'Sofrim Asidin l'Chadesh' refers to Mikra Megilah. What is ...

1. ... 'Dikdukei Torah'?

2. ... 'Dikdukei Sofrim'?

8)

(a)Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan requires leaving a little of a Sefer unstitched at the top and at the bottom 'Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai'. Rebbi Chiya bar Aba qualifies this statement - by rendering the ruling mid'Rabanan ...

(b)... in order to the Sefer slack, to prevent it from splitting in two, should one close the Sefer too tightly.

(c)According to Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan. had the tiniest crack remained in the rock of the cave in which Moshe Rabeinu, and later Eliyahu, hid, and which Hash-m covered with His Hand (kiv'Yachol) as He went past - Moshe and Eliyahu would not have survived ...

(d)... for so the Pasuk writes in Ki Sisa "Ki Lo Yir'ani ha'Adam va'Chai".

(e)Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk "va'Aleihem k'Chol ha'Devarim Asher Diber Hash-m Imachem ba'Har" - that Hash-m showed Moshe 'Dikdukei Torah, Dikdukei Sofrim, u'Mah she'ha'Sofrim Asidin l'Chadesh'. 'Mah she'ha'Sofrim Asidin l'Chadesh' refers to Mikra Megilah ...

1. ... 'Dikdukei Torah' - to all words that come to include (such as "es" and "Gam"), and words that come to exclude (such as "Ach" and "Rak").

2. ... 'Dikdukei Sofrim' - to what the later Chachamim derived from the words of the earlier ones (e.g. what the Amora'im, learned form the statements of the Tana'im).

9)

(a)The Tana Kama of our Mishnah invalidates a Cheresh, Shotah or Katan from reading the Megilah. What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b)Assuming that a Cheresh is not even Yotzei bedi'Eved, who does Rav Masna establish as the author of our Mishnah?

(c)What makes us initially presume that, according to the author of our Mishnah, a Cheresh is not even Yotzei bedi'Eved?

9)

(a)The Tana Kama invalidates a Cheresh, Shotah or Katan from reading the Megilah. Rebbi Yehudah - validates the reading of a Katan.

(b)Assuming that a Cheresh is not even Yotzei bedi'Eved - Rav Masna establishes the author of our Mishnah as Rebbi Yosi.

(c)We initially presume that, according to the Tana of our Mishnah, a Cheresh is not even Yotzei bedi'Eved - so that the case of Cheresh tallies with that of Shoteh (who is certainly not Yotzei even bedi'Eved).

10)

(a)What is the problem with saying that Cheresh does not necessarily need to tally with Shoteh, and that the author could therefore be Rebbi Yehudah?

(b)How do we nevertheless reconcile the Reisha and the Seifa, both according to Rebbi Yehudah?

(c)How will establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yehudah create a problem with the Beraisa of Yehudah the son of Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi, who permits a dumb person to give Terumah l'Chatchilah (despite the fact that he is unable to recite a Berachah)?

(d)Why are we no better off by establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yosi (in which case Rebbi Yehudah will permit a dumb person even l'Chatchilah)? Which Beraisa (in connection with Birchas ha'Mazon) will then be problematic?

10)

(a)The problem with saying that Cheresh does not necessarily need to tally with Shoteh, and that the author could therefore be Rebbi Yehudah is - that he is the author of the Seifa (which validates the reading of a Katan), in which case he cannot also be the author of the Reisha (which invalidates it)!

(b)We nevertheless reconcile the Reisha and the Seifa of our Mishnah, both like Rebbi Yehudah - by establishing the Reisha by a Katan who has not yet reached the age of Chinuch, and the Seifa, by one who has (and amending the Lashon of the Mishnah accordingly). Note, that 'Cheresh' in our Mishnah refers to a person who cannot hear, but who is not dumb (and not to a deaf-mute, which is the more common connotation of 'Cheresh').

(c)Establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yehudah creates a problem with the Beraisa of Yehudah the son of Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi, who permits a dumb person to give Terumah l'Chatchilah (despite the fact that he is unable to recite a Berachah) - because, if Rebbi Yehudah forbids a deaf person to recite the Megilah (or to perform any Mitzvah that requires speech) l'Chatchilah, then the author of that Beraisa will be neither Rebbi Yosi, who forbids it even bedi'Eved, nor Rebbi Yehudah!

(d)We are no better off by establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yosi (in which case Rebbi Yehudah will permit a dumb person even l'Chatchilah) - because then, who will the author of the other Beraisa, which forbids Benching silently (in one's heart) l'Chatchilah, but renders someone who does so Yotzei bedi'Eved? Again, neither Rebbi Yosi, nor Rebbi Yehudah!

11)

(a)We establish the Beraisa of Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi like Rebbi Yehudah. Then who will be the author of the previous Beraisa, which forbids Benching silently l'Chatchilah?

(b)What does Rebbi Meir learn from the Pasuk "Asher Anochi Metzav'cha ha'Yom al Levavecha"?

(c)How does this enable us to re-establish the two Beraisos currently under discussion?

11)

(a)We establish the Beraisa (of Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi) like Rebbi Yehudah quoting his own opinion - whereas Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah is quoting his Rebbe, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (who explicitly learns like this in a Beraisa). The author of the previous Beraisa too, which forbids Benching silently l'Chatchilah is Rebbi Yehudah quoting Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah.

(b)Rebbi Meir learns from the Pasuk "Asher Anochi Metzav'cha ha'Yom al Levavecha" - that the main Mitzvah of reciting the Shema (and whatever else needs to be recited) is in the heart (and that it is not therefore necessary to say it out aloud).

(c)Having ascertained that Rebbi Meir permits thinking the Shema, Berachos ... , the author of the Beraisa of Yehudah Brei d'Rav Shimon ben Pazi Shimon will now be Rebbi Meir whereas the author of the Beraisa of Birchas ha'Mazon is Rebbi Yehudah (who is also the author of our Mishnah, and who in fact, agrees with Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah that l'Chatchilah, one is obligated to recite the Shema, Birchas ha'Mazon and the Megilah out loud.

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