MEGILAH 23 (7 Av) - Dedicated in memory of Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens, N.Y., Niftar 7 Av 5757, by his wife and daughters. G-d-fearing and knowledgeable, Simcha was well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah. He will long be remembered.

[22a - 41 lines; 23b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]דמצלי אצלוייD'MATZLU ATZLUYEI- they lean towards their sides (so as not to be completely face-down)

2)[line 19]דנפיש סידורא דיומאD'NAFISH SIDURA D'YOMA- the order (prayers) of the day are longer

3)[line 21]וחד דעמיהV'CHAD D'IMEI- and one that is with him (who is not as important as the first)

4)[line 23]שומרי הסףSHOMREI HA'SAF- the gatekeepers

5)[line 23]מרואי פני המלךME'RO'EI PENEI HA'MELECH- among his advisors (lit. those that see the face of the king)

6)[line 24]רואי פני המלךRO'EI PENEI HA'MELECH- the king's advisors

7)[line 27]יעקב מינאהYAKOV MINA'AH- Yakov the heretic. Tosfos says that the Girsa is MITZA'AH, the sheet maker (because the Gemara would not refer to a wicked person by his surname)

8)[line 32]דמישלם בעובדיהD'MISHLAM B'OVDEI- his deeds are pure (lit., complete)


9)[line 7]תורגמןTURGEMAN- translator

10)[line 10]פורסין על שמעPORSIN AL SHEMA- (a) saying Barchu, Kadish, and the first of the two Berachos of Shema (i.e., the one with "Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh") b'Tzibur for the benefit of people who prayed without a Tzibur and left out those Tefilos (RASHI); (b) alternatively, saying the Berachos before Shema in order to be Motzi a person or persons who do not know to say them by themselves (GE'ONIM cited by RAN; see Insights)

11)[line 12]מעמד ומושבMA'AMAD U'MOSHAV- in certain areas, after burying the dead the funeral escort would walk a bit and then stop and sit down to comfort the relatives of the deceased and to mourn. They would repeat this procedure seven times. (RASHBAM Bava Basra 100b)

12)[line 12]ותנחומי אבליםTANCHUMEI AVEILIM (forming a row in the cemetery to comfort mourners)

(a)While a person mourns for a close relative, it is a Mitzvah mid'Rabanan to comfort him by saying "ha'Makom Yenachem Eschem b'Soch She'ar Avelei Tziyon vi'Yerushalayim" ("HaSh-m will comfort you among the mourners of the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim"), or "Tenuchamu Min ha'Shamayim" ("You will be comforted by HaSh-m"). The mourners accept Tanchumin at the cemetery after the burial, and in the house of mourning for seven days afterwards. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 13:2; Shulchan Aruch Yoreh De'ah #376)

(b)At the cemetery after the burial, the people who came to the funeral stand in rows of not less than ten people and comfort the mourners. The mourners stand to the left of the comforters, and they pass in front of the mourners one by one, giving Tanchumin. (Rambam ibid. 13:1-2)

13)[line 14]וברכת חתניםBIRKAS CHASANIM- the seven Berachos said during Birkas ha'Mazon at a meal attended by a Chasan and Kalah within their "seven days of celebration."

14)[line 15]ובקרקעותKARKA'OS (PIDYON KODSHIM) - redeeming a consecrated object

(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redemption from Hekdesh.

(b)If the object that is being redeemed from Hekdesh is anything other than land, three experts must be present to determine its value. If the object is land, ten experts, one of them a Kohen, must be present. The same applies if a person donates his own value to Hekdesh; ten experts, one of them a Kohen, must determine the amount that will pay Hekdesh. (Erchin 19b and Rashi; Rambam Hilchos Arachim 8:2)

15)[line 19]"ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל""V'NIKDASHTI B'SOCH BNEI YISRAEL" - "[And you shall not desecrate my name] and I will be sanctified among the Jewish people." (Vayikra 22:32) (TEN CONSTITUE A MINYAN)

(a)The Gemara learns that ten men constitute a Minyan from a double Gezeirah Shavah: 1. "Toch, Toch" from "Hibadlu mi'Toch ha'Eidah" (from the congregation of Korach); 2. "Eidah, Eidah" from "Ad Masai ha'Eidah ha'Ra'ah ha'Zos" (from the ten spies, not counting Yehoshua and Kalev). The same ruling applies to the law of sanctifying G-d's Name in front of an Eidah (with reference to giving up one's life rather than transgress a Mitzvah) which constitutes ten men.

(b)Rabeinu Chananel cites a Yerushalmi, which also learns it from a Gezeirah Shavah of "Eidah, Eidah," but from the ten brothers of Yosef who went down to Egypt to purchase corn, about whom the Torah writes in Vayeshev, "va'Yavo'u Bnei Yisrael b'Toch ha'Ba'im."

(c)The Torah Temimah suggests that the Yerushalmi declines to learn like the Bavli because it prefers to learn it from a single Gezeirah Shavah than from a double one. Perhaps we may suggest that it avoids the Bavli's Gezeirah Shavah because the latter learns it from Resha'im, who would probably be disqualified from making a Minyan (E. Chrysler).

(d)Perhaps the Bavli declines to learn like the Yerushalmi because it is does not want to learn the Halachah of Minyan from a verse that was said before Matan Torah, especially if it considers the Avos before Matan Torah as Bnei Noach.

16)[line 23] "הבדלו מתוך העדה" "HIBADLU MI'TOCH HA'EIDAH" -"[And Hash-m spoke to Moshe and Aharon:] Separate from within this congregation, [and I will consume them in a moment.]" (Bamidbar 16:21)

17)[line 29]ברכת רחבהBIRKAS RECHAVAH- after burying a dead relative, others would provide the mourners with refreshments or a meal outside (in the street, "Rechavah"), on their way home from the funeral. During the meal, one of those present would recite a blessing, Birkas Rechavah, ending with "Baruch... Menachem Aveilim." (Kesuvos 8b)