MEGILAH 2 - Dedicated in honor of Rabbi David Wilensky and the Tuesday night Gemara shiur.

[2a - 52 lines; 2b - 52 lines]

1)[line 3]כרכין המוקפין חומהKERACHIN HA'MUKAFIN CHOMAH- large cities that are surrounded by a wall

2)[line 4]כפריםKEFARIM- villages

3)[line 6]ליום הכניסהYOM HA'KENISAH- Monday or Thursday, the days that the villagers came to the large cities to supply them with foodstuffs, or to go to court for judgment, since the courts convened on these two days (Bava Kama 82a)

4)[line 22]שיספקו מיםSHE'YESAPKU MAYIM- that they should supply water

5)[line 29]"והימים האלה נזכרים ונעשים בכל דור ודור משפחה ומשפחה מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר וימי הפורים האלה לא יעברו מתוך היהודים וזכרם לא יסוף מזרעם""VEHA'YAMIM HA'ELEH NIZKARIM V'NA'ASIM B'CHOL DOR VA'DOR, MISHPACHAH U'MISHPACHAH, MEDINAH U'MEDINAH V'IR VA'IR, V'YEMEI HA'PURIM HA'ELEH LO YA'AVRU MI'TOCH HA'YEHUDIM V'ZICHRAM LO YASUF MI'ZAR'AM" - "And these days are to be remembered and made in every generation, each family, each province, and each town, and these days of Purim will not pass from the Jews, and their remembrances will not perish from their descendants." (Esther 9:28) (MAKING PURIM AND DEFINING A WALLED TOWN AND ITS LAWS)

(a)Rashi explains that "remembered and made" refers to "reading the Megilah and the other Mitzvos of Purim" (feasting, Simchah, Mishlo'ach Manos, and Matanos la'Evyonim) respectively. The source for this is a Yerushalmi which explains that "making" Purim refers to the Se'udas Purim. This, says the Torah Temimah, is due to the fact that whereas it is possible to "mention" ("remember") the days of Purim, how does one actually "make" them? It must therefore pertain not so much to the day as to what one does on the day (see Torah Temimah to Shemos 32:16, "La'asos Es ha'Shabbos").

(b)"Medinah u'Medinah" comes to differentiate between towns that had walls from the time of Yehushua bin Nun (that read on the fifteenth of Adar) and those that did not have walls at that time (that read on the fourteenth). "Ir va'Ir" comes to differentiate between the city of Shushan (which reads on the fifteenth, even though it was not surrounded by a wall in the days of Yehoshua ben Nun, because the miracle occurred on that day there) and other towns.

(c) The Torah Temimah explains that in fact they initially intended to issue a ruling in honor of Shushan obligating all towns that were walled in the time of Achashverosh to read the Megilah on the fifteenth, and those that were not walled then, on the fourteenth. The Chachamim realized, however, that this would be a slight to Eretz Yisrael, the cities of which lay in ruins, and so they changed the criterion to being walled in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun, who was the first to fight Amalek after the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, thereby raising the prestige of the cities of Eretz Yisrael.

(d)"Mishpachah u'Mishpachah," says the Yerushalmi, hints at the villagers, who read on the eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth (in addition to the other two possible days on which the Megilah is read), although the Bavli (on 3a) will explain it differently.

6)[line 37]תריסר ותליסרTREISAR U'TELEISAR- the twelfth and thirteenth [of Adar]

7)[line 38]זמן קהילה לכל היאZEMAN KEHILAH LA'KOL HI- it was a time of gathering for everyone, (the Jews who lived in the walled cities and in the villages defended themselves and took revenge from their enemies in the time of Achashverosh)

8)[line 40]שיתסר ושיבסרSHITSAR V'SHIVSAR- the sixteenth and seventeenth [of Adar]

9)[line 45]רבי עקיבא סתימתאהREBBI AKIVA SETIMTA'AH- Rebbi Akiva, the unnamed authority; i.e. Rebbi recorded many Mishnayos that follow the opinion of Rebbi Akiva without quoting his name


10)[line 18]היהודים הפרזיםHA'YEHUDIM HA'PERAZIM- the Jews who live in the open, spread out (similar to the word Parutz) cities or villages

11a)[line 31]עשייהASIYAH- making Purim into a holiday and eating a festive meal with wine

b)[line 31]זכירהZECHIRAH- remembering the miracle by reading the Megilah

12)[line 50]"אלה המצות אשר צוה ה' את משה אל בני ישראל בהר סיני""ELEH HA'MITZVOS ASHER TZIVAH HASH-M ES MOSHE EL BNEI YISRAEL B'HAR SINAI" - "These are the Mitzvos which HaSh-m commanded Moshe regarding Bnei Yisrael, on Har Sinai" (Vayikra 27:34). (NO NEW MITZVOS, AND REINTRODUCING A FORGOTTEN MITZVAH)

(a)The Torah Temimah cites the Ramban who differentiates between the dual Mitzvah of "Lo Sosifu v'Lo Sigre'u" (in Parshas Va'eschanan and Parshas Re'eh) and the Mitzvah here: whereas the former pertain to adding to a Mitzvah (e.g. five Parshiyos to one's Tefilin, as Rashi explains there), this verse refers to adding (or subtracting) a complete Mitzvah to (or from) the Taryag Mitzvos of the Torah.

(b) The Torah Temimah suggests that there should be nothing wrong with reintroducing a forgotten Mitzvah, since this does not fall under the category of introducing a new Mitzvah. He concludes that to do so is permitted, provided that it is done through the application of the various principles by which the Torah was given, but not by means of prophecy (due to the principle of "Lo ba'Shamayim Hi"). Similarly, a Navi is authorized to reinstate or to reveal hidden Halachos by virtue of his studies, as long as he does not do so by means of prophecy.

(c)Likewise, he maintains, one is permitted to clarify facts using the Urim v'Tumim or other means (such as the Man, which, in many cases, was able to indicate whether one person had stolen something from another, as the Gemara in Yoma 75a explains). This is because it was a matter of clarifying facts, and not Halachos. In any event, the Parshah of the Man was written in connection with Moshe Rabeinu, whereas the verse "Eleh ha'Mitzvos" pertains to later Nevi'im and Chachamim (whose prophecy is inferior to that of Moshe), but not to Moshe himself.

(d)Finally, says the Torah Temimah, the Torah is talking about adding Mitzvos but not about issuing decrees to safeguard the existing Mitzvos. When the Chachamim do that, they fulfill the Mitzvah of "u'Shemartem es Mishmarti," which teaches "Asu Mishmeres l'Mishmarti" - enact safeguards to My laws.

13)[line 51]כמחמתןKEME'CHAMESAN- like [the distance] from Chamesan, a city in the Galilee, not far from Teverya, that contained hot springs (Shabbos 109a), probably on the location of the modern-day Chamei Teveryah (Tiberias Hot Springs)

14)[line 51]לטבריאTEVERYA- Tiberias, a city built by Herod Antipas in honor of the emperor Tiberias Julius Ceasar Augustus (Bereishis Rabah 23:1), approximately fifty years before the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was called Teveryah by the Jews because it lies in the center of the country ("Tibur" means navel) and because it is a sight to behold ("Tovah Re'iyasah") (Megilah 6b). It was built on the cemetery of Chamesan (Shabbos 33b-34a), and some say on the remains of an ancient walled city.

15)[line 53]מנצפ'ך צופים אמרוםMANTZEPACH TZOFIN AMARUM- after the correct usage of the two different forms of the letters Mem, Nun, Tzadi, Peh, and Kaf (the letters which have a different shape when they are the last letter of a word) was forgotten, the prophets designated which of the two forms of the letters is to be used at the end of a word and which is to be used elsewhere in a word