Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)If the blood of ...

1. ... a Chatas ha'Of is sprinkled below the Chut ha'Sikra, where is the blood of a Chatas Beheimah sprinkled?

2. ... an Olas ha'Of is sprinkled above the Chut ha'Sikra, where is the blood of an Olas Beheimah sprinkled?

(b)How far above or below the Sovev is the Chut ha'Sikra located?

(c)Bearing in mind the Pasuk in Vayikra (in connection with the Chatas ha'Of) "ve'Hizah mi'Dam ha'Chatas al Kir ha'Mizbe'ach, ve'ha'Nish'ar ba'Dam Yimatzei el Y'sod ha'Mizbe'ach", why can the blood of a Chatas ha'Of not be sprinkled above the Chut ha'Sikra?

(d)From where do we learn that the blood of a Chatas Beheimah is brought above the Chut ha'Sikra?

1)

(a)The blood of ...

1. ... a Chatas ha'Of is sprinkled below the Chut ha'Sikra, that of a Chatas Beheimah - above it.

2. ... an Olas ha'Of is sprinkled above the Chut ha'Sikra, that of an Olas Beheimah - below it.

(b)The Chut ha'Sikra is located - one Amah below the Sovev.

(c)Bearing in mind the Pasuk in Vayikra (in connection with the Chatas ha'Of) "ve'Hizah mi'Dam ha'Chatas al Kir ha'Mizbe'ach, ve'ha'Nish'ar ba'Dam Yimatzei el Y'sod ha'Mizbe'ach", the blood of a Chatas ha'Of cannot be sprinkled above the Chut ha'Sikra - because then, in the event that the Kohen performed it above the Sovev, the blood will not flow down to the Y'sod.

(d)We learn that a Chatas Beheimah is brought above the Chut ha'Sikra - from the fact that the Torah (in Vayikra) specifically uses the word "Karnos" with regard to it.

2)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk there (in connection with the Olas ha'Of) "u'Malak ve'Hiktir ve'Nimtza Damo"?

(b)And from where do we learn that the blood of an Olas Beheimah is sprinkled below the Chut ha'Sikra?

(c)If a Chatas ha'Of requires Haza'ah, what is the equivalent Avodah with regard to an Olas ha'Of ?

(d)What will be the Din if the Kohen ...

1. ... changes any of the above (to sprinkle the blood of a Chatas ha'Of above the Chut ha'Sikra, or to squeeze the blood of an Olas ha'Of below it?

2. ... performs the Melikah of a Chatas ha'Of above the Chut ha'Sikra?

2)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk there (in connection with the Olas ha'Of) "u'Malak ve'Hiktir ve'Nimtza Damo" that - just as the burning of the bird takes place on top of the Mizbe'ach, so too, should the Melikah and the Mitzuy [refer to (c)].

(b)And we learn that the blood of an Olas Beheimah is sprinkled below the Chut ha'Sikra - from the fact that the Torah (in Vayikra) specifically uses the word "Y'sod" with regard to it.

(c)If a Chatas ha'Of requires Haza'ah, the equivalent Avodah with regard to an Olas ha'Of is - Mitzuy (squeezing the blood).

(d)If the Kohen ...

1. ... changes any of the above (to sprinkle the blood of a Chatas ha'Of above the Chut ha'Sikra, or to squeeze the blood of an Olas ha'Of below it - it is Pasul.

2. ... performs the Melikah of a Chatas ha'Of above the Chut ha'Sikra - it is Kasher (See Tiferes Yisrael 5).

3)

(a)What is the status of ...

1. ... a pair of birds (Kan) of a Korban Chovah?

2. ... birds that one brings as a Neder or Nedavah?

3. ... the pair of birds that is brought by a Ger?

(b)Why does the Tana not mention the latter ruling?

(c)Yoledes, Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kodashav, Sh'mi'as Kol Alah and Bituy Sefasayim all bring a Kan only if they are poor. Which is the only case that brings a Kan even if she (or he) is rich? (Note: See Tosfos Yom Tov, beginning of Mishnah 3, as to why, throughout the Masechta, the Mishnah refers to the Korban of women).

3)

(a)The status of ...

1. ... a pair of birds (Kan [See Tosfos Yom Tov]) of a Korban Chovah is that of - a Chatas or an Olah (See also Tosfos Yom Tov).

2. ... birds that one brings as a Neder or Nedavah is that of - an Olah (exclusively).

3. ... the pair of birds that is brought by a Ger is that of - an Olah.

(b)The Tana does not mention the latter ruling - because it is uncommon (See also Tosfos Yom Tov).

(c)Yoledes, Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kodashav, Sh'mi'as Kol Alah and Bituy Sefasayim all bring a Kan only if they are poor. The only case that brings a Kan even if she/he is rich is - that of a Zavah (or a Zav [Note: See Tosfos Yom Tov, beginning of Mishnah 3 as to why, throughout the Masecta, the Mishnah refers to the Korban of women]).

4)

(a)If the definition of 'Neder' is where the owner declares 'Harei Alai', what is 'Nedavah'?

(b)What is the basic difference between a Neder and a Nedavah?

(c)The Tana does not include a Chatas in the case of a bird that is a Neder or Nedavah, because one cannot bring a Chatas as a Neder or a Nedavah. Why does it not include a Shelamim?

4)

(a)A Neder is where the owner declares 'Harei Alai Olah', a 'Nedavah' - where he declares 'Harei Zu Olah'.

(b)The basic difference between a Neder and a Nedavah is - where the animal subsequently dies or gets lost, in which case the former is liable to replace it, whilst the latter is Patur.

(c)The Tana does not include a Chatas in the case of a bird that is a Neder or Nedavah, because one cannot bring a Chatas as a Neder or a Nedavah. Neither does he include a Shelamim - since a bird can never be brought as a Shelamim.

Mishnah 2
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5)

(a)What happens in a case where ...

1. ... a Chatas becomes mixed up with two Olos, or one Olah with two Chata'os?

2. ... one Chatas becomes mixed up in ten thousand Olos, or vice-versa?

(b)Why is the single bird not Bateil be'Rov?

(c)Regarding the following Mishnah, what is the definition of S'tam?

5)

(a)In a case where ...

1. ... one Chatas becomes mixed up with two Olos, or one Olah with two Chata'os, or even if ...

2. ... one Chatas becomes mixed up in ten thousand Olos, or vice-versa - all the birds must die (See Tosfos Yom Tov).

(b)The single bird is not Bateil be'Rov - because live animals are Chashuv and are therefore not subject to Bitul.

(c)'S'tam' (in the following Mishnah) means that - the owner has not yet specified which bird in the Kein is a Chatas and which one, an Olah.

6)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses Chovos and Nedavos that become mixed up with one another. If one Chatas becomes mixed up with two S'tam Chovos (Kinim) of a Zavah or a Yoledes, how many Chata'os must the Kohanim bring and how many Olos?

(b)Why can they not bring three Chata'os?

(c)By the same token, what happens if one Olah becomes mixed up with two S'tam Kinim?

(d)This ruling applies irrespective of whether there is a majority of Chovos, a majority of Nedavos or whether they are equal. The latter case is where two Olos or two Chata'os become mixed up with one Kein. What is the case where the majority is ...

1. ... the Chovah?

2. ... the Nedavah?

(e)Why does the Tana refer to Olos Mefurashos as Nedavah?

6)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses Chovos and Nedavos (See Tosfos Yom Tov DH 'Bein she'ha'Chovah Merubah ... ') that become mixed up with one another. If one Chatas becomes mixed up with two S'tam Chovos (Kinim) of a Zavah or a Yoledes, the Kohanim bring - two Chata'os and no Olos.

(b)They cannot bring three Chata'os - in case the third bird is one of the other birds of the Kein, which must be an Olah.

(c)By the same token, if one Olah becomes mixed up with two S'tam Kinim - the Kohanim bring two Olos and no Chata'os.

(d)This ruling applies irrespective of whether there is a majority of Chovos, a majority of Nedavos or whether they are equal. The latter case is where two Olos or two Chata'os become mixed up with one Kein. The case where the majority is ...

1. ... the Chovah is - where one set of Olos becomes mixed up with two or more S'tam Kinin of a Zavah or a Yoledes.

2. ... the Nedavah is - where one Kan S'tumah becomes mix-up with two or more sets of Olos.

(e)The Tana refers to Olos Mefurashos as Nedavah - because Nedarim and Nedavos are all Olos (as we learned earlier).

Mishnah 3
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7)

(a)How will the Din differ if it is not a Nedavah or Nedavos that becomes mixed up with a Chovah or with Chovos, but a Chovah or Chovos that becomes mixed up with a Chovah or with an equal number of Chovos?

(b)What will the Kohen then bring if ...

1. ... one Kan Chovah of one woman becomes mixed up with the Kan Chovah of another woman?

2. ... two or three Kinei Chovos of two or three women become mixed up with two or three Kinei Chovos of two or three women, respectively?

(c)Why can he not bring even one more bird?

7)

(a)If it is not a Nedavah or Nedavos that become mixed up with a Chovah or with Chovos, but a Chovah or Chovos that become mixed up with a Chovah or with an equal number of Chovos - then the Kohen brings half of the total number of birds as Chata'os and half as Olos ...

(b)Consequently, if ...

1. ... one Kan Chovah of one woman becomes mixed up with the Kan Chovah of another woman - he brings one Kein, of which one is a Chatas and the other, an Olah (See Tosfos Yom Tov)

2. ... two or three Kinei Chovos of two or three women becomes mixed up with two or three Kinei Chovos of two or three women, respectively - he brings two or three Kinim, respectively, half as Chata'os and half as Olos.

(c)He cannot bring even one more bird - since it may come from one of the Kinim from which he has already brought one Olah (See Hagahos Maynei Yehoshua).

8)

(a)What does the Tana Kama say in a case where an unequal number of Kinei Chovos become mixed up; one in two, three, ten or even a hundred (See Tiferes Yisrael & Hagahos Ma'aynei Yehoshua)?

8)

(a)In a case where an unequal number of Kinei Chovos become mixed up; one in two, three, ten or even a hundred (See Tiferes Yisrael & Hagahos Ma'aynei Yehoshua), the Tana Kama rules that - the Kohen brings only the equivalent of the smaller Kein (one in this case), one bird as a Chatas and one as an Olah.

9)

(a)This applies irrespective of whether the one is of one Sheim or of two Sheimos, of one woman or of two women. What is the case by one woman of ...

1. ... one Sheim?

2. ... two Sheimos?

(b)And what will be the equivalent ruling there where the two sets of birds belong to two women?

9)

(a)This applies irrespective of whether the one is of one Sheim or of two Sheimos, of one woman or of two women. The case by one woman of ...

1. ... one Sheim is - where one is for Leidah and the other one is also for Leidah.

2. ... two Sheimos is - where one is for Leidah and the other too, for Zivah.

(b)And the same rulings will apply - where the two sets of birds belong to two women.

10)

(a)What does Rebbi Yossi say about a case where two women give their four unspecified birds to bring as two Kinim (or money to purchase them) to a Kohen assuming that they are ...

1. ... both mi'Shem Echad?

2. ... mi'Sh'tei Sheimos?

(b)Why is there a problem with establishing the Mishnah where the women made no conditions?

(c)Then how does the Gemara in Eruvin explain it?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

10)

(a)Rebbi Yossi rules in a case where two women give their four unspecified birds to bring as two Kinim (or money to purchase them) to a Kohen, irrespective of whether they are ...

1. ... both mi'Sheim Echad or ...

2. ... mi'Sh'tei Sheimos that - the Kohen can bring whichever bird he wishes as a Chatas for each woman and the other one, an Olah.

(b)There is a problem with establishing the Mishnah where the women made no conditions - in that it clashes with the Halachic principle Ein B'reirah (See Tosfos Yom Tov).

(c)The Gemara in Eruvin therefore establishes it - where the women stipulated when they purchased the birds that the Kohen will have the right to choose which birds he will bring for which woman (See also Tiferes Yisrael).

(d)The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yossi (though it is unclear in which point the Tana Kama disagrees with him).

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