Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)What does one do if one of the birds flies away, or flies among the Chata'os that have to die or if it dies, assuming it is from ..

1. ... a Kan S'tumah?

2. ... a Kan Mefureshes?

(b)What might we have thought in the former case?

(c)If it flies from a group of Kinim S'tumos into a group of Kinim S'tumos that are waiting to be brought on the Mizbe'ach, it is Pasul. What about the Kinim from which it came?

(d)What reason does the Tana give to explain this ruling?

1)

(a)If one of the birds flies away, or flies among the Chata'os that have to die (See Tosfos Yom Tov) or if it dies, assuming it is from ..

1. ... a Kan S'tumah - one simply takes another bird to make up the Kein, Kal va'Chomer if it is from ...

2. ... a Kan Mefureshes (See Tosfos Yom Tov DH 'Kein S'tumah').

(b)We might have thought in the former case that - since they had not yet been designated, the remaining bird must die and the woman must start again with a new pair of birds.

(c)If it flies from a group of Kinim S'tumos into a group of Kinim S'tumos that are waiting to be brought on the Mizbe'ach, it is Pasul (See Tifere Yisrael) - and so is one bird of the Kinim from which it came (See also Hagahos M'a'aynei Yehoshua) ...

(d)... because a bird that flies away is Pasul and renders Pasul one corresponding bird (See Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 2
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2)

(a)The Mishnah gives an example where Rachel and Leah each have two S'tam Kinim and where one bird flies from Rachel's Kinim to the Kinim of Le'ah. How many birds become Pasul?

(b)What exactly is Rachel permitted to bring?

(c)What problem would she create if she were to bring two Olos and one Chatas?

(d)Why is that?

(e)For what alternative reason is she not permitted to bring the third remaining bird as a Chatas (even if she brought the first two as a Chatas and an Olah)?

2)

(a)The Mishnah gives an example where Rachel and Leah each have two S'tam Kinim and where one bird flies from Rachel's Kinim to the Kinim of Le'ah. One bird in each of the two women's Kinim becomes Pasul.

(b)Rachel is permitted to bring - two birds, one Chatas and one Olah ...

(c)... because if she were to bring two Olos and one Chatas - this would fix the bird that joined Le'ah's Kinim as a Chatas, and would limit Le'ah to only two Chata'os out of the five birds ...

(d)... because, as we learned in the first Perek, if a Chatas becomes mixed up in a Chovah, one may only bring the number of Chata'os in the Chovah.

(e)Alternatively, she is not permitted to bring the third remaining bird as a Chatas (even if she brought the first two as a Chatas and an Olah) - in case Le'ah brings the fifth bird as a Chatas too (See Tosfos Yom Tov).

3)

(a)What happens if one bird now flies back from Le'ah's Kinim to Rachel's, leaving each one with four birds?

(b)How many birds is each one then permitted to bring?

(c)Why can they not both bring the two Kinim that they end up with?

(d)What two alternatives do Rachel and Le'ah have to bringing two birds each (as we just explained)?

3)

(a)If one bird now flies back from Leah's Kinim to Rachel's, leaving each one with four birds - it renders Pasul one bird from Leah's Kinim and one from Rachel's ...

(b)... in which case each one is permitted to bring two birds - a Chatas and an Olah.

(c)They cannot both bring the two Kinim that they end up with - in case the bird that flew back is not the same one that flew out the first time, and each one will bring a Chatas from the same Kein (as we just explained).

(d)The two alternatives Rachel and Le'ah have to bringing two birds each (as we just explained) is that - one of them brings 1. two Olos and one Chatas, and the other, a Chatas; 2. two Chata'os and an Olah, and the other, an Olah.

4)

(a)What will the Din be if one bird now flies from Rachel's Kinim to Le'ah's and vice-versa, even a few times?

(b)Why is that?

4)

(a)If one bird flies from Rachel's Kinim to Le'ah's and vice-versa, even a few times - the Din remains the same as in the previous case ...

(b)... since the Din is that even if all four Kinim become mixed up, each woman is permitted to bring one Kein (See Tosfos Yom Tov).

Mishnah 3
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5)

(a)What does the Mishnah now rule in a case where one bird flies from Rachel's Kein into the two Kinim of Le'ah, one bird from Leah's five, into the three Kinim of a third woman, one bird from there into the four Kinim of a fourth woman, and so on, until the bird of a sixth woman flies into the seven Kinim of a seventh woman, and one bird flies back from the seventh to the sixth ... one to the fifth and so on, until one bird flies back Lea'h's two Kinim to Rachel's one?

(b)What is therefore the Din immediately after the first bird flew from Rachel's Kein into Le'ah's two Kinim regarding ...

1. ... the remaining bird in Rachel's Kein

2. ... the five birds that Le'ah now had?

(c)How many birds is the third woman permitted to bring, when the one bird flies from Le'ah's Kinim into her three?

(d)That being the case, why can Rachel not bring her remaining bird let's say, as a Chatas (which would fix the bird that flew into Le'ah's Kinim as an Olah)?

5)

(a)In a case where one bird flies from Rachel's Kein into the two Kinim of Le'ah, one bird from Leah's five, into the three Kinim of a third woman, one bird from there into the four Kinim of a fourth woman, and so on, until the bird of a sixth woman flies into the seven Kinim of a seventh woman, and one bird flies back from the seventh to the sixth ... one to the fifth and so on, until one bird flies back Lea'h's two Kinim to Rachel's one, the Mishnah now rules that - each time a bird flies out from a Kein it invalidates one bird in the Kinim from which it flew, and each time a bird flies into other Kinim it does the same.

(b)Immediately after the first bird flies from Rachel's Kein into Le'ah's two Kinim ...

1. ... the remaining bird in Rachel's Kein - becomes Pasul.

2. ... the five birds that Le'ah now has - she is permitted to bring as before (two as Chata'os and two as Olos).

(c)When the one bird flies from Le'ah's Kinim into the third woman's three, she is now permitted to bring three Chata'os and three Olos.

(d)The reason that Rachel cannot bring her remaining bird let's say, as a Chatas (which would fix the bird that flew into Le'ah's Kinim as an Olah) is - because then Le'ah will only be permitted to bring one Chatas and one Olah, because if she brings two Olos, perhaps they will both be from her two Kinim, in which case the bird that flies into the third set of Kinim will be a Chatas, and the owner will be restricted to bring three Chata'os (as we learned in the previous Mishnah).

6)

(a)After one bird has flown from each woman to the next one and one bird has flown back, what does the Tana rule in connection with ...

1. ... Rachel and Le'ah? How many Kinim are they permitted to bring?

2. ... the third woman?

3. ... the fourth woman?

4. ... the fifth and sixth women?

(b)Seeing as the Mishnah forbids Le'ah to bring any birds at all, we ask why the Tana permits the third woman to bring only one Kein and not two. How else might he have ruled concerning the third woman and Le'ah?

(c)How do we explain the Chumra regarding the third woman?

(d)Why does the Tana invalidate only one Kein by the seventh woman, and not two, as it does with regard to the third woman through to the sixth?

6)

(a)After one bird has flown from each woman to the next one and one bird has flown back, the Tana rules that ...

1. ... Rachel and Le'ah - may not bring any birds at all ...

2. ... the third woman may bring one Kein.

3. ... the fourth woman - two ...

4. ... the fifth and sixth women - three and four Kinim, respectively.

(b)Seeing as the Mishnah forbids Le'ah to bring any birds at all, we ask why the Tana permits the third woman to bring only one Kein and not two. Alternatively, the third woman ought to be able to bring - one Kein and Le'ah - one.

(c)And we explain the Chumra regarding the third woman in that - seeing as the other women from the fourth and onwards each lose two Kinim, so does she.

(d)The Tana invalidates only one Kein by the seventh woman, and not two, as it does with regard to the third through to the sixth women - because only one bird flew away from it (and not two, like the Kinim of the other women).

7)

(a)The Tana now discusses a case where one more bird flies away from each of the sets of Kinim discussed earlier and one returns. Why can this not include the Kinim of Rachel and Le'ah?

(b)What general ruling does he apply to this case?

(c)What does he therefore rule regarding ...

1. ... the third and fourth women?

(d)If the fifth woman is allowed to bring only one Kein and the sixth one, three Kinim, how many Kinim may the seventh woman bring?

(e)Why not six?

7)

(a)The Tana now discusses a case where one more bird flies away from each of the sets of Kinim discussed earlier and one returns. This cannot include the Kinim of Rachel and Le'ah - because, since their birds have all been disqualified, they have to die. Consequently, the birds in any group into which one of them flies, must all die (as we will learn later in the Mishnah).

(b)The general ruling that he applies here is that - each of the two birds renders Pasul one bird from each group.

(c)He therefore rules that ...

1. ... the third and fourth women - can no longer bring any birds at all ...

(d)... the fifth woman can bring only one Kein, the sixth one, three Kinim, and the seventh one - five ...

(e)... not six - in case the two birds that flew away from it are brought as Olos, which would mean that eight Olos are brought from her Kinim (and there are only seven Olos in seven Kinim).

8)

(a)Seeing as the fourth woman cannot bring any birds at all, how many Kinim ought the fifth woman be allowed to bring?

(b)Now that she can only bring one, what ought the Din to be regarding the fourth woman?

(c)So why does the Mishnah restrict her (the fifth woman) to only one Kein?

8)

(a)Seeing as the fourth woman cannot bring any birds at all, the fifth woman ought to be allowed to bring - three Kinim.

(b)Now that she can only bring one, the fourth woman - ought to be able to bring two Kinim ...

(c)... and the reason the Mishnah restricts her to only one Kein is - a decree on account of the other women, who each lose two Kinim, as we learned in the previous case.

9)

(a)What will be the Din in the event that one more time a bird flies from the fifth Kinim to the sixth ... to the seventh, and one bird flies back again?

(b)How many of her Kinim is the seventh woman then allowed to bring?

9)

(a)In the event that one more time a bird flies from the fifth Kinim to the sixth ... to the seventh, and one bird flies back again - all the Kinim are disqualified except for those belonging to the seventh woman ...

(b)... who is allowed to bring five Kinim.

10)

(a)What do Yesh Omrim mean when they say that the seventh woman does not lose anything?

(b)Why five Kinim?

(c)Why did the Chachamim not decree by the seventh woman, according to him?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

(e)What does the Mishnah finally say about a bird that flies from a Kein that must die into another group of Kinim?

10)

(a)When Yesh Omrim say that the seventh woman does not lose anything - he is referring to the current case exclusively (where she is permitted to bring five Kinim, like in the previous case [See Tosfos Yom Tov]) ...

(b)... because, at most, a total of three birds flew away from her Kinim, leaving eleven birds, of which she now brings five Chata'os and five Olos.

(c)According to Yesh Omrim, the Chachamim did not decree by the seventh woman - because a. the sixth woman cannot bring any birds anyway, and b. she never loses any birds when one flies into her Kinim (only when it flies out).

(d)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

(e)The Mishnah finally rules that, if a bird flies from a Kein that must die into another group of Kinim - all the birds must die.

Mishnah 4
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11)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a case where Rachel has a Kan S'tumah and Le'ah, a Kan Mefureshes. If one of Rachel's birds flies into Le'ah's Kein, what must Rachel do?

(b)Assuming that Le'ah's Kein became mixed up, what must Rachel do if one of Le'ah's birds flies ...

1. ... back into her Kein after her bird flew into Le'ah's?

2. ... into her Kein first?

(c)If Le'ah knows which bird is which, what must Rachel do if Le'ah's Olah flies into her Kein?

(d)What must ...

1. ... Le'ah do if one of Rachel's birds flies into her Kein?

2. ... Rachel do if one of the three birds subsequently flies from Le'ah's Kein and joins the remaining bird in her Kein?

11)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses a case where Rachel has a Kan S'tumah and Le'ah, a Kan Mefureshes. If one of Rachel's birds flies into Le'ah's Kein - Rachel simply takes another bird and designates one of them a Chatas, the other, an Olah.

(b)Assuming that Le'ah's Kein became mixed up, irrespective of whether one of Le'ah's birds flies into Rachel's Kein ...

1. ... back into her Kein after her bird flew into Le'ah's or if it ...

2. ... into her Kein first - both birds must die.

(c)If Le'ah knows which bird is which, then, if Le'ah's Olah flies into her Kein - she brings one of the three birds as an Olah (and Le'ah, her remaining Chatas).

(d)If one of ...

1. ... Rachel's birds flies into Le'ah's Kein - the latter's birds must all die.

2. ... the three birds subsequently flies from Le'ah's Kein and joins the remaining bird in Rachel's Kein - they must all die.

Mishnah 5
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12)

(a)Now the Mishnah discusses a case where Rachel has a Chatas and Le'ah, an Olah, and between them is the Kein S'tumah belonging to Osnat. What must Rachel and Le'ah do if one bird flies from Osnat's Kein to one side, and one bird, to the other?

(b)If one bird from each side flies back to the middle, what happens to ...

1. ... the bird/s (See Tosfos Yom Tov) on either side?

2. ... the two birds in the middle?

(c)What is the reason for the latter ruling (See Tiferes Yisrael)?

(d)What happens if the two birds in the middle now fly back, one to Rachel's Kein and one to Le'ah's, or if one of them flies to one of the sides and then one of the birds in that Kein flies to the other side (Pirush ha'Mishnayos le'ha'Rambam)?

12)

(a)Now the Mishnah discusses a case where Rachel has a Chatas and Le'ah, an Olah, and between them is the Kein S'tumah belonging to Osnat. If one bird flies from Osnat's Kein to one side, and one bird, to the other - the Kohen declares the birds in Rachel's Kein Chata'os (See Tiferes Yisrael), and those in Le'ah's Kein, Olos.

(b)If one bird from each side flies back to the middle ...

1. ... the bird/s (See Tosfos Yom Tov) on either side can be brought, whereas ...

2. ... the two birds in the middle - must die ...

(c)... because each one is a Safek Mefureshes, Safek S'tumah.

(d)If the two birds in the middle now fly back, one to Rachel's Kein and one to Le'ah's, or if one of them flies to one of the sides and then one of the birds in that Kein flies to the other side (Pirush ha'Mishnayos le'ha'Rambam [See also Tosfos Yom Tov]) - all the birds must die.

13)

(a)What is the Din regarding a woman bringing a Kein consisting of a pigeon and a dove?

(b)What does the Tana Kama say about a woman who brings a pigeon as ...

1. ... a Chatas and a dove as an Olah?

2. ... an Olah and a dove as a Chatas?

(c)What is his reason?

(d)What does ben Azai say?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

13)

(a)A woman is not permitted to bring a Kein consisting of a pigeon and a dove.

(b)According to the Tana Kama, if a woman brings a pigeon as ...

1. ... a Chatas and a dove as an Olah, or ...

2. ... an Olah and a dove as a Chatas - she must now bring another Olah which is the same species as the Chatas ...

(c)... because the Chatas is the main Korban.

(d)Ben Azai maintains - that we go after the first Korban that she brought, and it is the second one that she must replace.

(e)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

14)

(a)If a woman brings her Chatas and dies, her heirs bring her Olah (See Tosfos Yom Tov). What will be the Din in the reverse case?

(b)On which principle is this ruling based?

(c)If not for this principle, her heirs would be obligated to bring her Chatas. What is the problem with that?

(d)How is the problem resolved?

14)

(a)If a woman brings her Chatas and dies, her heirs bring her Olah (See Tosfos Yom Tov). In the reverse case - they do not bring her Chatas ...

(b)... due to the principle - that a Chatas whose owner died must die.

(c)If not for this principle, her heirs would be obligated to bring her Chatas, despite the fact that - the Chatas is supposed to precede the Olah ...

(d)... because that is only Lechatchilah.

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